Techniques De Culture Des Plantes

Wheat Farming

Grains, which are one of the main food sources of human beings, are among the most produced crops all over the world. Wheat, on the other hand, is one of the most cultivated and consumed products among cereals. The wide adaptability of the wheat crop, its nutritional value, ease of processing and its popularity in the market are seen as the reasons why our farmers focus on wheat farming. In addition, wheat is preferred by our farmers with its advantage in storage. Since the crop, which is the staple food of 50 countries in the world, is the raw material of many foods that reach the table, the demand of the consumer is continuous.

What Does Wheat Mean?

Wheat, an annual plant, is called triticum. The product, which is the model plant of the wheatgrass, is turned into food by using the grain that is separated from the ear and ground. From wheat, which cannot be consumed in its raw form; bulgur, split, semolina, wheat flour and germ are obtained. There is a wheat product in almost every food, from bread to pastries, from rice to soup and dessert. Considering the importance of wheat in consumption, it can be realized how important wheat cultivation is for our country.

Where and In What Climate Does Wheat Grow?

Wheat crops do not like too much heat and humidity. Known as a cool climate grain, wheat grows at a temperature of 8-10 degrees, especially in the first developmental stages. Relative humidity above 60% is sufficient. While the temperature should be between 10-15 degrees between tillering and rooting, it is considered important that the humidity is at the level of 65%. During this period, little light and semi-enclosed air are recommended for wheat. It is known that the desire for temperature and humidity of wheat increases with the rise of the stem. The high humidity before the spike means an advantage for wheat cultivation. Along with fertilization, low humidity and high temperature guarantee an increase in the quality of the wheat grain. An average of 500 mm of precipitation, which is properly distributed during the development period, helps to obtain maximum efficiency.

According to the wheat document published by the official authorities, wheat likes cool and warm climates. In order to get quality and abundant products, the annual precipitation should be between 350 and 1150 mm. Wheat cultivation can be done in almost all barren lands. Wheat grows better in soils rich in nutrients and with sufficient moisture. However, our farmers are advised to pay attention to the absence of ponding. Wheat wants loose soil, does not like too much acid. It is underlined that the ideal soil for wheat cultivation should be light to moderately calcareous.

The sowing time of wheat varies according to the region. There are differences in planting dates in different regions of our country. For example, wheat is planted between October 15 and November 15 in İzmir and its surroundings. While wheat is planted around Edirne in mid-October, wheat takes its place in the field between November 15 and December 15 in Sakarya. It is recommended to sow wheat between October 21 and November 11 in Tekirdağ and between August 15 and September 1 around Erzurum Kars. The dates of September 15 to October 15 are suitable for wheat cultivation in the Muş – Van range. While it is considered ideal for dry cultivation in Konya between September 15 and October 10, it is recommended to plant between October 1 and October 10 in Konya for irrigated cultivation. In Central Anatolia, wheat is sown generally in October, especially in the first week of October. The soil temperature in the seed bed determines the cultivation of wheat. The temperature of the soil is between 8 and 10 degrees, providing rapid root development. In addition, crops withstand the cold of winter better thanks to planting at the right time. Wheat is usually grown in winter in our country, but if it is to be planted in the spring, it is important to plant it as early as possible.

Wheat is generally grown by rotation. After the previous harvest, the soil needs to be plowed and mixed with a plow. The use of certified seeds is essential to obtain high quality products. On average, 500 live seeds are planted on an area of ​​1 square meter. According to the genus, an average of 16-20-22 kilograms of seeds are given per decare. Seeds are usually planted with sowing machines. Under normal conditions, 5-6 cm depth is considered sufficient for seeds, but in small seeds, the depth can go down to 4-5 cm. In order to prevent grain losses in wheat, the humidity should not fall below 14%, this humidity level is considered the sign of the harvest. Wheat can be harvested with the help of a combine harvester when the humidity level falls below 14%.

With Which Fertilizer Is Wheat Fertilized?

Soil analysis must be done before the use of fertilizers in wheat farming. In order to make balanced fertilization, the deficiencies of the soil are determined and then the application is started. According to the Wheat Agriculture article of the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, generally 12-14 kilograms of pure nitrogen per decare and 4-5 kilograms of phosphorus per decare are required. Phosphorus fertilizers are applied to the soil before or during planting. Nitrogen fertilizers are applied by dividing them into three. The first part of the fertilizer is given in October. If there is a lack of zinc and phosphorus in the soil, it is preferred to apply 20-25 kilograms per decare, such as 20-20-0-1Zn. The second fertilization is usually done at the end of February and 8-10 kilograms of urea fertilizer is used per decare. The last third part is applied in March and in the form of ammonium nitrate,

How to Care for Wheat Plant?

  • Wheat is generally grown without irrigation. In very dry times, irrigation can be done with the appropriate method during the flowering or milk production periods of wheat. Wheat needs water the most during the stem and milk production periods.
  • Giving nitrogen fertilizer during the uprooting period is the most important maintenance tip.
  • Crop rotation is recommended to prevent possible root diseases in wheat. Sunflower, Hungarian vetch, canola, melon, watermelon, onion, bean, corn can be used in the watch.
  • Excessive use of seeds and nitrogen fertilizers should be avoided.
  • Weed control needs to be in the early stage. The problem of weeds can be overcome with the use of drugs.

When is wheat harvested?

Wheat sown in autumn is harvested between May and August.

In which regions of Turkey does wheat grow?

Wheat can be grown in almost all regions of Turkey. Central Anatolia, Marmara-Thrace and South East Anatolia are the leading regions where wheat is grown the most. The Eastern Black Sea Region is one of the rare lands where wheat cannot be grown in our country.

What season does wheat grow in?

Wheat is sown in the fall, grown in the winter and harvested in the summer.

When is wheat planted?

Wheat is sown in the form of seeds in October-November-December. The planting time varies according to the soil temperature and the climate of the region.

What fertilizer is applied to wheat?

Nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers can be applied to wheat. Ammonium nitrate, urea fertilizer and composite fertilizers can be preferred in wheat cultivation.

How is wheat watered?

Wheat is generally grown without irrigation. In very dry times, irrigation can be done twice at the beginning of the head and milk production. Irrigation can be done in long pans and sprinkler shapes.

When does wheat grow?

Wheat is generally grown in winter in our country, and a lower yield is obtained in summer wheat planting. Wheat sown in autumn is harvested in summer.

How is Sunflower Farming Made?

Sunflower, one of the oil crops grown on our soil, meets approximately 46% of the vegetable oil production in Turkey. The yellow fields, which offer a visual feast, make our farmers smile with their abundance. Sunflower pulp, which is used in the production of both vegetable oil and vegetable margarine, can be preferred as animal feed and fuel. Sunflower grains, one of the main ingredients of the cellulose industry, are consumed as snacks.

While some types of sunflowers are considered as ornamental plants and cut flowers, some are called snacks and some are called oilseeds. Sunflowers with striped, large, thick-skinned seeds are categorized as snack foods. Again, this type but not large ones are offered as bird food. Oil sunflowers, on the other hand, are distinguished as black colored and thin-shelled. Oilseed sunflower seeds promise health with their protein value as well as oil. If you are wondering how to grow sunflowers, from the stem to the seed, from the head to the leaf, you can follow our article.

How is Sunflower Cultivated?

Sunflower cultivation requires a lot of effort. Sunflowers, which have a highly developed green part, take a lot of nutrients from the soil during their growing period. For this reason, those who grow sunflowers do not prefer to plant sunflowers in the same field every year. In order not to decrease the yield, sunflowers take their place in the field by rotation method.

Sunflower is planted in dry conditions by replacing it with plants such as wheat, barley and rye. Thus, the efficiency can be higher. The plant, which is not very picky in terms of soil, can grow in different soils such as sandy and clayey. It is recommended to choose alluvial soils rich in organic matter for better growth of sunflower. Very stony, very sandy or outcrop soils are not considered suitable for sunflower. The pH value should be between 6.0 and 7.2. Unfortunately, sunflower cannot be grown in soils with high ground water and drainage problems. In addition, during sunflower production, plants can withstand a salt concentration of 2-4 mmhos/cm.

How to Plant Sunflower Seeds?

Sunflower growers know that a good seed bed must be created by destroying the weeds in the soil. After the previous crop is removed (in June or autumn), the appropriate time is entered into the field and the field is plowed at an average depth of 20-25 cm. For sunflowers that grow better in a moist seedbed, the soil is worked 10-15 cm deep with crowbar and rake in spring. Among the sunflower cultivation tips, it is reminded that the plow base layer should be broken by pulling the bottom cauldron every 4-5 years. A depth of 50-60 cm is a condition for healthy sunflower cultivation.

If wheat has been planted in the field before, deep plowing after harvest is particularly recommended for healthy cultivation. It is recommended to mix the soil with the cultivator again in the fall. After the soil has passed the winter, it is processed between 8-10 cm with the cultivator, fertilizer and herbicide are thrown and mixed again. After the bolt is passed, the field is ready for plowing.

No more than 500 grams of seeds are planted per decare with pneumatic seeders. When there is not enough moisture in the soil, it is done before planting. When there is enough moisture, the seeds are easily sprouted in the soil. Generally, planting is done in irrigated conditions with 5500-6000 plants per decare. A distance of 70 cm is considered sufficient between the crops, and in some regions, a distance of 45 cm between rows is chosen. The row spacing is between 24 and 28 cm. The ideal planting depth is calculated as 3-4 cm in annealed soil.

Where Can Sunflower Farming Be Done?

Turkey, which is among the top ten sunflower producing countries in the world, produces approximately 60 types of sunflowers. So, in which region is sunflower grown mostly in Turkey? Oil sunflower cultivation is concentrated in Thrace and the Marmara region. Confectionary sunflowers are produced in Central Anatolia and Eastern Anatolia regions. Konya region, on the other hand, has attracted attention in recent years with its increase in both oil and snack production.

Sunflower production can be done in areas with an average rainfall of 700-800 mm per year and 350-400 mm in the growing phase. In regions with lower rainfall, sunflower cultivation is carried out with water support. Sunflower production requires labor from seed to harvest. In order for the seed to germinate, the temperature of the soil must be between 8 and 10 degrees. In the growing phase, the soil temperature is expected to be 15-25 degrees. It is underlined that the product is particularly adversely affected by temperatures below 4 degrees. Sunflower, which is a durable plant, can withstand up to -5 degrees after it leaves. Resistance to low temperatures continues, gradually decreasing until the 6-8 leaf period. The product preferred by our farmers because of its high adaptability,

What Should Be Considered While Producing Sunflowers?

  • During sunflower production, different rotations are made in different regions. It is stated that root rot disease, which causes low yield, is not effective and there is a high increase in wheat yield when it is put into rotation with wheat in Çukurova. The use of potash fertilizers is important for plants to be planted after sunflowers, which are planted in rotation with potatoes, soybeans, peanuts and corn in irrigated conditions.
  • Seed selection is the first among the sunflower production stages. Experts warn in the selection of seeds, new certified seeds should be planted every year. It is underlined that the seeds should be clean, germination rate and output power should be high.
  • It is recommended to use parasite-resistant sunflower seeds in order not to reduce the yield in the fields where tuberculosis grows. In addition, chemical control is recommended with the planting of IMI group sunflowers.
  • If sensitive and non-medicated varieties are to be planted, it is recommended to spray the seeds against the disease.
  • If there are any seeds left from last year, these seeds should be stored in a dry and cool place. It is important to control the germination of 100 seeds by soaking them in a paper towel before sowing, so that the planting process is not wasted.
  • It is necessary to pay attention to the sunflower planting times. Sowing is done in March in the Aegean, Mediterranean and Southeast Anatolian regions, in April in the Marmara, Central Anatolian and Black Sea Regions, and in May in the Eastern Anatolia Region. Sowing time may vary according to the climatic conditions of the year.
  • If planting will be done in dry conditions, it is recommended to plant as early as possible depending on the climate. Early sowing allows to take advantage of the precipitation in winter and spring.
  • When organic sunflower production is made, it is observed that seeds grown in soil fertilized with organic fertilizers grow much faster. Maintaining the organic matter ratio in the soil is of great importance for sustainable sunflower agriculture.
  • It is recommended to cultivate perpendicular to the slope in sloping agricultural lands.
  • During irrigation, it is necessary to check with an iron rod whether the water reaches the root depth or not. It is recommended to ensure that the water reaches the root.

When Is Sunflower Watered? How to Care?

Sunflower emerges in 5-10 days on average after planting. After 15-20 days, it reaches 10-15 cm in length. This size also marks the time of misfire. Sunflowers appear 30-35 cm tall after 25-35 days. Throat filling time is this process. Physiological maturity is reached 60-75 days after sowing, and it is harvested at the end of an average of 90-130 days. When is sunflower watered? If you are wondering the answer to this question, you should first know the structure of the soil. If there is not enough moisture in the soil, an outlet irrigation is required. In the early development period, when the useful water in the soil decreases, wilting symptoms can be seen. In this case, irrigation can be done 2 or 3 times with an interval of 15-20 days. While calculating the irrigation interval, care is taken not to reduce the moisture in the soil to the wilting point. Sufficient amount of water is supplemented when the useful water rate is around 50%. In our country, sunflower cultivation is generally carried out in dry conditions. The plant, which has a strong and deep root system, withstands dryness to a large extent. However, it is emphasized that when the plant is grown with sufficient water and supported by controlling the moisture of the soil, yield increase can be up to 100%. Sunflowers need water the most between the beginning of the table formation and the period when the grain is milky. When the plant reaches 40-50 cm in height, the most suitable irrigation time is indicated. In summary, the plant needs to be watered three times when the plant is between 40-50 cm, during the formation of the table and when the flowers fall. It is emphasized that there can be an increase in efficiency up to 100%. Sunflowers need water the most between the beginning of the table formation and the period when the grain is milky. When the plant reaches 40-50 cm in height, the most suitable irrigation time is indicated. In summary, the plant needs to be watered three times when the plant is between 40-50 cm, during the formation of the table and when the flowers fall. It is emphasized that there can be an increase in efficiency up to 100%. Sunflowers need water the most between the beginning of the table formation and the period when the grain is milky. When the plant reaches 40-50 cm in height, the most suitable irrigation time is indicated. In summary, the plant needs to be watered three times when the plant is between 40-50 cm, during the formation of the table and when the flowers fall.

Agriculture of Sugar Beet

In our country, sugar beet farming affects the lives of approximately 500 thousand farmers, in other words, 3 million people. In addition, agriculture is intertwined with animal husbandry, that is, feed, medicine, meat, milk, transportation and service sectors. The subject constitutes a unity in different branches and subjects such as agriculture, agricultural industry, processed basic food products and employment. In sugar beet, quality is as important as yield. Because the price of the product is determined according to the sugar ratio in the beet. In high yield and quality sugar beet cultivation, how and when all processes from soil preparation, fertilization, planting, maintenance, struggle, irrigation, harvesting and siloing It is only possible if the manufacturer knows very well what needs to be done.

Soil Preparation

In sugar beet cultivation, autumn cultivation must be done in soil preparation. In the fields where autumn ploughing is made; More benefit from autumn and winter precipitation, easier field and seed bed preparation is made for the spring. Since the field will be plowed in the spring if the autumn version is not made, the field is played a lot during the period until planting. Since this will take a long time, the tempering of the field will be missed and seed sowing will be delayed. Soil preparation in the spring is the most delicate work of sugar beet farming. The time of soil preparation before planting and the use of the equipment used in this work significantly affect the yield and quality of sugar beet, and therefore production. A hard plow floor is formed at the bottom due to the plowing of the fields at the same depth for a long time. This prevents the beet from going deep and creates bifurcation. For this, it should not be forgotten that the plow base layer should be broken by pulling the bottom cauldron at a depth of 50-60 cm every 4-5 years.

Variety Selection

One of the most important factors affecting yield and quality in sugar beet production is the selection of varieties. In recent years, flexibility has been provided to farmers in the selection of seeds in sugar beet agriculture, and different sugar beet seeds obtained from the market have started to be used in addition to the seeds given by the farmers’ beet cooperative. Since sugar companies are now implementing a quality-based purchasing policy, it is beneficial for farmers to turn to varieties with the highest quality and yield. The following features should be considered when choosing a variety.

– It should be suitable for the climate and soil structure of the planted area,
– It should be resistant to diseases and seeds,
– Root and sugar yield should be high,
– Germination power and field emergence should be good,
– It should be healthy, reliable and cheap.

Due to the large number of varieties on the market in recent years, the farmers can unconsciously buy seeds at very high prices and these seeds can be planted much more frequently than the normal planting norm, which increases the cost of the farmer. All of the varieties sold today are varieties with high germination power. Therefore, when farmers meet the above criteria, there is no reason not to produce high-yield and high-quality production when combined with the right cultivation technique.


In sugar beet cultivation, planting time affects the presence of refined sugar and root yield. If the sowing time is delayed, the growing period of the beet will be shortened, the maturation will be delayed, and the expected efficiency from the fertilizers cannot be obtained. Plant resistance to diseases and pests decreases. For these reasons, it is very important to plant sugar beet at the appropriate time.

In the spring, immediately after the soil tillage and seed bed preparation are finished, the planting process should be started without losing the moisture and temper in the soil.
In the Konya region, spring frosts can be seen until the middle of April, according to the average of many years.

Delaying the planting time too long due to the fear of repeated plantings caused by late frosts in the spring may cause loss rather than gain. Therefore, it is best to plant when the soil temperature and climate are ideal. Sugar beet seeds can rise to the soil surface at a temperature of 4-5 degrees.

The time to start sowing is at a depth of 0-5 cm, when the soil temperature regularly reaches 5-7 degrees, the soil surface is raked according to the precipitation, that is, the ideal soil annealing. The most suitable planting time is the end of March and mid-April in Central Anatolia and transition regions. For the Konya region, sugar beet planting should be done as of March 15, when the soil is tempered. In order to reduce seed waste and singling labor, in-row planting distance should be adjusted according to soil fertility and tempering. For this reason, sowing in tempering will give the best results in reaching the ideal plant density.

Sugar beet is planted in the same field every four years due to the quadruple rotation system. However, in recent years, significant increases have been observed especially in soil-borne diseases due to the fact that the plant species to be grown in the field were not determined correctly in the years when sugar beet was not planted in the Konya region, and the same plant species were grown one after the other. In the following years, if the necessary sensitivity is not shown in the alternation system, it may be necessary to switch to quintuple or hexadecimal alternation systems instead of quadruple alternation. Bean-sugar beet-wheat-corn-or sunflower, annual forage crops alternations can be recommended for sugar beet cultivation areas. If weeds emerge from the field, herbicide must be used before or after planting.

If weeds are not combated, the development of young beet seedlings is prevented and reduces yield. In our country, sugar beet is planted at a distance of 45 cm between rows and is generally planted at a distance of 20-25 cm. 9.000-10.000 plants per decare give the best results in trials. However, our farmers plant in row spacing very often in order to guarantee the output, which in turn causes an increase in the cost of the seeds spent by the farmers. Sowing speed is one of the important factors affecting planting quality. The speed of the tractor pulling the seeder should not exceed 4km/h in sowing on precision seeders. Excessive speed causes the seeds to spill unevenly, the depth settings to deteriorate, and the seeds to remain on the soil surface.

Potato Farming

Potato is a plant that has an important place in human nutrition at least as much as wheat and rice. With its high carbohydrate content, it is the main food source of many nations in Europe and America.

Potato Growing Techniques

Potato is a plant that is consumed the most in human nutrition and industrial raw material after grains due to the starch, protein B1, B2 and C vitamins and some mineral substances it contains. Potatoes are produced in different regions of our country for reasons such as being easily adaptable to various climatic conditions, being cheap, getting more yield per unit area when compared to alternative plants, and high nutritional value. For high and quality production in production, it is necessary to apply many cultivation techniques correctly, from the selection of the region to be grown to soil preparation, from variety selection to fertilization and irrigation, from disease control to rotation.

Problems experienced in potato production in Niğde and Nevşehir regions caused potato production to shift towards Konya region. Konya region produces 7% of Turkey’s potato production as of 2010 and has an average yield of 3.7 tons/da, which is above the country average.

Seed and Variety Selection

Disease-free starting material is the most important part of potato farming. Many factors such as region, climatic factors, market situation are effective in the potato varieties to be grown. The grower must decide in advance what kind of product he wants to obtain, and must determine the production purpose beforehand. While making this decision, the conditions of the production area should be taken into consideration. The variety to be planted should be decided according to the industrial, edible, or seed production situation.

Using quality and disease-free seeds is an important and mandatory condition for potatoes. In order to get high yield in potato farming, it is important to use healthy seed tubers as well as using high yielding varieties. No matter how high yield potential the selected variety has, if the seed tubers are not healthy and have the desired characteristics, it will not be possible to reach the targeted yield. Potato diseases are usually carried by tubers and it is not possible to see the symptoms of the disease on the tuber with the naked eye. For this reason, great care should be taken to ensure that the seed tubers to be used in planting are certified. Elite and original seed production in potatoes is not sufficient in Turkey, and this situation causes breaks in the seed production chain. 450 for the year 2010 for potato cultivation areas in our country.

In order to increase or at least keep the potato yield and production at the same level, it is necessary to change the seed every 3 years and to use virus-free seeds. In general, the main factor limiting yield in our country is seed rather than variety. Although Turkey is an important potato producer, the scarcity of domestically bred varieties, the use of varieties brought from countries such as Germany and the Netherlands, and climatic differences can reduce the yield of potatoes, even if the adaptability is high.


Crop rotation is very important in order to be least affected by diseases and pests in regions where potato cultivation is carried out. In addition, if potatoes are planted before and after sugar beet, there is a risk of increasing the intensity of diseases transmitted through the soil. Since the potato is a hoe plant, it leaves a clean and well-aerated soil. For this reason, it has an important place during the crop rotation. In the fields where potatoes are planted every year, the intensity of diseases transmitted through the soil increases and there is a significant decrease in yield. Therefore, potatoes should not be planted in the same field every year.

Soil Preparation

As a result of continuous cultivation of the soil from the same depth, a hard impermeable layer of 5-10 cm is formed just below the depth of cultivation (20-25 cm), which is called the base stone. This layer is an impermeable layer and does not allow water and precipitation to go down and be stored, while plant roots cannot penetrate this layer. As the formation of footstones with soil compaction affects the physical, chemical and biological structure of the soil, it leads to significant decreases in plant growth and yield. In order to break this layer, it is recommended to draw a « bottom boiler » in areas where the soil is dry. The bottom digger should be drawn from a depth of 50-60 cm in July and August, for example, when the soil is dry.

This is very important for plants that form tubers under the ground, such as potatoes. For the tuber development of the potato, a well-prepared and raised seed bed should be prepared and a loose structure should be given to the soil. When the soil is tempering in autumn, it should be plowed from a depth of 20-25 cm with a plow. When the soil pan comes in the spring, the crowbar-rake combination should be pulled and a loose seed bed should be prepared and the field should be ready for planting.

Planting and Planting Time

The factor that determines the planting time is the soil temperature. Planting can be started when the total temperature reaches 8-10 degrees. Suitable planting time for Konya region is between April 15 and May 15. Tubers with a diameter of 28-35 mm should be used for seed production, and tubers with a diameter of 35-60 mm should be used for normal production. Seeds should be sprayed before planting. Planting depth should be 4-5 cm depending on soil moisture and temperature. Planted tubers should be covered with at least 10-15 cm of ground cover. In cases where moisture is insufficient, deep planting should be done.
After the tuber is planted in the soil, shoots form from the eyes.

The plant comes from these shoots. When it takes nutrients from the soil, it meets the nutrients it needs from this main tuber planted as a seed. Their number comes from a potato plant. The distances between rows should be 70 cm, on the other hand, 20-25 cm for seed potato production and 30-40 cm for edible potato production.

Corn Farming

Corn Cultivation Techniques

Corn is an important plant that is grown for grain and silage, used in human nutrition and animal nutrition. The cultivation area in our region is gradually increasing. Silage is a feed storage method based on the storage of green forage by leaving it in an airless environment and souring it. Silage is made from many plants. Researches and applications have shown that the best quality and easiest to make silage is corn silage. Corn is a plant that can be easily silaged, and it also has high protein and energy value. Corn silage is loved and consumed by animals. Nutritional value is higher than other silages. Corn silage can be easily stored for two years. Silage, which has an important place in the nutrition of all animals, especially dairy cattle, is an indispensable element for a profitable livestock.

Although the vegetation period for maize in Konya, which shows the typical continental climate characteristics of Central Anatolia, is considered to be between 25 April and 25 September, deviations such as later spring and earlier autumn frosts can be seen than expected. These untimely cold and frosts, which did not pose a great threat in silage corn cultivation until today, cause low yield in grain cultivation by causing damage to plants from cold, and if appropriate variety selection is not paid attention to, high grain moisture problems can be encountered at harvest, threatening even safe maturation.

Variety Selection

There are more than 160 registered or licensed cultivars in Turkey. Only 10-15 of them have been registered as silage or have obtained production permits, and all of the other varieties have been registered as grains in our country. It is very important to determine the suitable varieties for the region among so many varieties. Selection of varieties that can mature safely and whose development period is suitable for the vegetation period of the region is of great importance in the Central Anatolia Region. There is generally an inverse relationship between earliness and yield in maize cultivation, and the producer may even put the safe ripening condition at risk by choosing varieties that tend to mature late. In our province, very early varieties are sold for silage purposes, and the yield is significantly low in these varieties with short stature and less number of leaves.

The points to be considered in grain corn are as follows:

  1. Maturation period,
    2. Cord characteristic,
    3.  Resistance to lodging,
    4. Resistance to  pests and diseases,
    5. Response to planting  frequency,
    6.  Tolerance to heat and cold,
    7.  Hybrid status,
    8.  High drying rate,
    9.  High productivity and low harvest moisture
    10.  It should be suitable for the intended use (grain silage).

The purpose of cultivating the soil in corn agriculture is to prepare a good seed bed, bury the stalk residues from the pre-plant, aerate the soil, and increase the water stored in the soil by destroying the weeds.
Main Crop Soil Tillage in Corn Agriculture:
Field preparation in maize, the main product to be made in irrigated conditions, is the same as in sunflower agriculture. For this purpose, the field where corn is planned to be planted after the harvest of the pre-plant should be plowed at a depth of 8-10 cm with a plow, if the tempering is suitable. then a second ploughing should be made in Autumn at a depth of 18-20 cm.
If there is significant grazing in the field after the first ploughing due to falling rainfall, these weeds should be destroyed by cultivator (crowbar) by cultivating the soil at a depth of 10-15 cm. The corn plant requires a moist seed bed for proper emergence. In order to achieve this, when the soil pan comes in the spring, the field is made ready for planting by cultivator (crowbar) and then by processing it at a depth of 10-15 cm with a harrow or spring harrow.
In spring , deep ploughing with a plow, which can cause loss of soil moisture and temper, should be avoided.

Second Crop Soil Tillage in Corn Agriculture:
After the grain harvest to be made in June, the stalks are immediately removed from the field, the field is watered, the soil is plowed when the pan comes, and a disc harrow and a spring harrow are drawn. In addition, in some fields that do not have weed problems, another soil preparation method is made with a tapestry disc drawn perpendicular to each other. In both methods, it is beneficial to harvest the grain from below
(10 cm) as much as possible in order to facilitate the preparation of a good seed bed.
 Fertilizer Doses to be Used in Dry and Irrigated Corn Agriculture:

First of all, it is essential to analyze the soils for the most accurate fertilization. In order to give general information, various options of fertilizer forms and doses that can be applied in dry and conditions for adequate and balanced fertilization in corn production are given below. Nitrogenous, Phosphorus and Potash fertilizers can all be applied to the field by scattering with a centrifugal fertilizer spreader before the first tillage in the spring, and then mixed with the sowing depth with crow’s feet, or it can be applied to the
field with a combined sowing machine 5 cm to the right (or left) and below the seed. Half of the nitrogen
fertilizers are applied at planting and the other half in the next development periods between the rows, in the leaves and growing points of the plants.
can be applied without fail. In addition, nitrogen fertilizer should not be applied, as the leaves will be wet during irrigation or drizzle so that the fertilizer does not burn the plant leaves.
Nitrogen Fertilizers:
The most commonly used nitrogen fertilizers by producers are Ammonium sulfate (21% N), Urea (46%
N). Although all of these fertilizers provide the nitrogen needed by the plant, they are salty or alkaline to neutralize soil acidity due to their characteristics.
Ammonium sulfate should be preferred before planting or planting in soils, and urea or ammonium nitrate should be used in other neutral or acid soils. Since nitrogenous fertilizers are lost from the soil in different ways, they must be applied to the soil every year. These nitrogen fertilizer doses, which have the highest grain yield per decare from the corn plant, are evaluated economically as the money given to the fertilizer and the income of the product taken from the field, and the most economical dose
is recommended to the producer.

Phosphorus Fertilizers:
Triple superphosphate (43-46%) is the most commonly used fertilizer in corn agriculture in terms of containing only phosphorus. If this fertilizer is needed as a result of soil analysis, all of it should be added to the soil before planting and mixed. In the researches, it has been seen that pure 7-8 kg/da phosphorus, that is, 15-18 kg/da Triple phosphate, is sufficient to get the highest yield from the decare. The part of the phosphorus given to the soil that is not taken up by the plants accumulates in the soil. In other words, the leaching of phosphorus from the soil by rain water is very little. For this reason, unnecessary use of phosphorus fertilizers and unnecessary costs should be avoided every year without a soil analysis.
Potassium Fertilizers:
In general, the soils of Turkey are rich in potassium nutrient. For this reason, there is no need to use potassium fertilizer unless the soil analysis is recommended. If potassium is needed in the soil, fertilization can be made from Potassium sulfate (50%) fertilizer before or together with planting, according to the results of soil analysis.
Compound Fertilizers:
Compound fertilizers are made by mixing nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in certain proportions. The most commonly used compound fertilizers in Turkey; 20:20:0, 18:46:0, 26:13:0 and 15:15:15. Here, the first number is nitrogen, the second number is phosphorus, and the third number is potassium in a compound fertilizer. Especially in corn agriculture, if our soil needs phosphorus, 20:20:0 or 18:46:0 fertilizer can be used before planting or with planting at 30-35 kg per decare. Phosphorus excess occurs in some producer fields as a result of using only compound fertilizers every year. For this reason, if there is no need for phosphorus fertilizer as a result of soil
analysis, the use of other nitrogen fertilizers instead of composite fertilizers will be more economical and efficient for both the producer and our country.

Tomato, which is one of the most consumed vegetables in the world and which is on our tables almost every day, is also grown in our country. The vegetable, whose homeland is South America, started to be produced in our lands after the discovery of the new world in the 1900s. The product, which was first grown in Adana, is produced both in the open and under cover, and is offered to consumers in all seasons. Of course, it is not a coincidence that one of the most preferred crops for greenhouse cultivation is tomato. In addition, tomatoes make our farmers smile as they offer high productivity in a short vegetation period.

The fact that tomato has a very high nutritional value and contains plenty of vitamins, minerals and amino acids distinguishes it from other vegetables. It is also frequently used in cooking, especially because it is rich in lycopene. It can be consumed both fresh and processed.

According to the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry document called Combating Tomato Diseases and Pests, tomatoes are examined in three groups according to their growth types.

  • stunted tomatoes
  • Semi-dwarf tomato varieties
  • pole tomatoes

After the tomato seeds have germinated, flower buds emerge when 2-7 leaf nodes are formed in the seedling. Along with budding, the elongation of the plant also stops. Growth continues through buds and side shoots. In this way, inverted tomatoes can grow up to 2-5 meters in length. In dwarf tomatoes, growth does not continue from the side of the flower bud. Species can be easily distinguished in this way.

The roots of the crops also develop in the form of pile roots with germination. The roots of the plant, which elongates and develops with lateral roots, can go down to 1.5 to 5 meters under suitable conditions. In greenhouse tomato cultivation, the roots of some varieties spread up to 30-40 cm, and can go down to a depth of 60 cm. The herbaceous stem becomes woody over time and may become closer to the ground surface with the fruits.

According to the article Open Tomato Cultivation: Tomato Cultivation in Open Field, tomato care; hoeing, irrigation, pruning, picking a seat, picking tips and harvesting steps. The first hoe is made 2 weeks after the seedlings are planted, and the second hoe is done 2-3 weeks after that. In pole varieties, poles are also planted together with the second anchor. In the meantime, care is taken to remove weeds while filling the throat. The first seat starts when the plants are given a seed and is repeated every 10-15 days.

According to the article Covered Tomato Cultivation: Covered Tomato Cultivation, tomato seedlings are planted when they have 5-6 leaves. While growing tomatoes in greenhouses, watering is done less but frequently, and the amount of water is increased starting from fruit set. Giving life water after planting supports root development. In greenhouse cultivation, pole variety is most used. While the crops are growing, they are supported by the legs so that they stand upright. A rope is tied to the plant under the place where the 3rd or 4th leaf meets the stem. Thanks to this process called suspending, the trunk can bear fruits. When the tomatoes reach 5-15 cm in length, the seats begin to be taken. When it is taken at the right time, there is no problem of re-emergence. In tomato cultivation, pruning is done from morning to noon. Since the water content of the tomato plant is high at these times, its fragility is also high. This tip, which reduces the labor time and the formation of the wound layer, is known by many of our farmers. In addition, it is important not to leave a nail layer while pruning.

What are the Appropriate Conditions for Tomato Cultivation?

Tomatoes, which like warm and hot climates, do not like cold. During the growing season, the temperature drops below -2 degrees, causing damage. Below 14 degrees, while maturation is delayed, a decrease in yield occurs. It is stated that the suitable temperature for the crop is between 22 and 26 degrees. It is considered normal to have irregular fruit set at temperatures below 15 degrees and above 35 degrees. It is underlined that the temperature difference between day and night is important in tomato cultivation. An 8-12 degree difference between day and night seems ideal for crops. While pollination and fertilization problems occur below 11 degrees, it is stated that the best pollination occurs above 16-17 degrees.

If greenhouse cultivation is done, it is recommended to start ventilating the greenhouse when the air temperature exceeds 24 degrees. It is important that the humidity is in the range of 65-70%. In the fertilization period, the yield increases when the ideal humidity is 70-80%. Tomatoes grow better in 6 hours of direct sun. When there is not enough sunlight, the plant weakens and development is hindered.

Tomatoes are not considered picky in terms of soil. Tomatoes can be grown in almost all soils where climatic conditions are suitable. Tomatoes are more productive in deep soils that have good air and water holding capacity and do not contain salinity. Tomatoes can be grown in sandy or light clay soils. Soil pH between 5 and 7 helps to get the best results. Before planting tomato, which is a rooted plant, deep plowing of the soil provides an advantage for cultivation.

Where Do Tomatoes Grow?

Tomatoes are mostly grown in Aegean, Mediterranean and Marmara regions in our country. Among the provinces where tomatoes are grown the most, Antalya, Bursa and Manisa are counted. In addition, different types of tomatoes from some regions are famous in our country. While Çanakkale is known for its round and large tomatoes, the products of Bursa region can be preferred for tomato paste. Although tomatoes are not picky in terms of soil, they can be grown more easily in temperate and warm climates.

What fertilizer is applied to tomatoes?

According to the tomato fertilization publication of the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, fertilizer use is started according to the soil analysis. Tomatoes remove 20% of their nutritional needs from the soil during the seedling period, 35% between flowering and harvest, and the remaining 45% during the ripening and harvesting period. Fertilizer is applied by drip. In loamy soils, one-third of the fertilizers are applied from the bottom and two-thirds of the fertilizers are applied as top dressing. If there is a lack of nitrogen, potassium or phosphorus in clay soils, two-thirds of the fertilizers are applied from the bottom, and one-third is dripped.

How to water tomatoes?

It is known that the most ideal irrigation method for tomatoes is drip irrigation.

When Do Tomatoes Fruit?

Tomatoes grown in open field become harvestable within 80-100 days after sowing, and between 60-80 days after planting seedlings. Tomatoes grown in the greenhouse begin to be harvested after 60-70 days. The long harvest interval of tomatoes, which can be harvested both when green and red, increases their usefulness in the market.

How many days to water tomatoes?

Although tomatoes love moisture, over-watering can damage the crop. It is recommended to irrigate once in 3 days on average in May, once in 2 days in June, and 5 times in 6 days in July. Watering once a week in August and once a week in September is sufficient.

When are tomatoes planted?

The suitable time for planting tomato seedlings varies according to the weather conditions, but usually seedlings are planted in May.

In what season are tomatoes planted and grown?

Spring months are considered suitable for planting tomato seeds. Seed production can be started in March, April and May. Since the air must be above 14 degrees for tomato cultivation, cultivation is preferred in spring and summer.

Bean Growing Techniques

Dry beans are an important source of vegetable protein in human nutrition. Dry beans are an excellent pre-plant for sugar beet and wheat, which are widely planted in our region. Significant yield increases are observed in sugar beet and wheat planted after dry beans. Legumes have a great importance in human nutrition due to their protein, calories, vitamins and minerals. Legumes are also good sources of minerals. Legumes are richer in calcium than grains. Legumes contain significant amounts of phosphorus. In addition to the dry grains of the bean, ripe fruits and grains are used as vegetables. Fresh fruits and grains contain around 90% water. Although the protein ratio in dry grains varies according to the variety and cultivation technique, it is around 22% on average.

Variety Selection

In our country, in recent years, some varieties such as Şehirali-90 (Horoz-Bodur), Yunus-90 (Horoz-Bodur), Göynük-98 (Horoz-Bodur), Akman-98 (Dermason-Side wrapper) suitable for dry bean farming have been introduced by public research institutes. developed. On the other hand, today, the cultivation of local varieties with population characteristics such as Canadian, Black leaf and American Bush is widely practiced. Since the use of certified seeds is at the level of 1%, seed quality is the key to bean cultivation in terms of yield and disease.

Bacteria Vaccination

Since beans, a legume plant, benefit from the free nitrogen of the air with the nodules in their roots, there is no need for a lot of nitrogen fertilization when the seeds are inoculated with bacteria or if beans have been grown in that soil before. It is sufficient to give 2-3 kg/da of pure nitrogen as base fertilizer to meet the needs of the plant until the nodules in the roots become active. Since the bean is a legume plant, it produces its own nitrogen. Bacteria living together with the beans in their roots take the nitrogen from the air and give it to the beans. The tumors formed on the roots not only give the bean the nitrogen it needs, but also leave nitrogen to the plant that comes after it. For inoculation, 100 kg of bean seeds should be mixed with 1 L of sugar water and 1 kg of bacterial vaccine in a shaded place.

Sowing time is closely related to soil temperature. Soil temperature should be at least 8-10 oC for good germination. At a higher temperature than this, the germination and emergence of seeds will be faster. In sowing done without warming the soil, the seeds do not germinate until the soil warms up and the emergence is delayed. May 1-15 is the most suitable planting time in our region. Sowing should be done with a pneumatic seeder at a distance of 45 cm between rows, at a distance of 8-10-12 cm, depending on the variety, and at a depth of 5 cm from the annealing level in the soil. Although it varies according to seed size, 6-10 kg of seeds are required per decare. The amount of seeds varies depending on whether the variety is dwarf or with a wrapper, sowing frequency depends on the sowing method and seed size. Small seeded varieties at 6-7 kg, medium-sized varieties at 7-10 kg in row sowing.

The rice crop, which is grown in all continents except Antarctica, shows high yields, especially in soils outside the tropical climate zone. Rice, which spread in Asia in 3000 BC, becomes one of the rare crops grown all over the world in millennia. It is recognized as one of the most nutritious alternatives to cereals. The amino acids in it make the rice rich in protein. More than half of the world’s population consumes rice among the basic nutrients. Today, paddy is one of the most produced crops globally. Rice cultivation ranks second among agricultural products in the world. Rice can be easily grown in swamps, savannas, forests, lagoons, stagnant water, deep or shallow water.

The root of paddy, which is a one-year crop, looks thin and fringed. The plant, which germinates in water and whose roots can be constantly under water, differs from other grains in this respect. The early varieties of the rice crop with knotty stems are described as short, while the late varieties are described as taller. Paddy, which forms more than one stem and bunch, can be tilled. Tilling occurs on average 2 weeks after sowing. The flowers at the ends of the stem are also seen in the form of clusters. There are between 100 and 150 flowers in a bunch.

The oryza species of rice show the widest distribution in the world. The cultivated paddy types are named O. sativa (Asian paddy) and O. glaberrima, (African paddy). The most widely produced paddy with different ecotypes seems to belong to the O. sativa species.

What Does Paddy Mean?

The paddy grown in the field is processed into rice. The husked product obtained after the threshing is called paddy, the husked and unpolished grain is called cargo, and the processed, polished husk-peeled output is called rice. Other forms are also mentioned in the journey of paddy, which has an important place on the tables and in the food chain, to become rice. As a result of processing 100 kilograms of paddy, an average of 55-60 kilograms of rice, 7-8 kilograms of broken rice, 8-10 kilograms of rice bran, 2-3 kilograms of photocell return, 2 kilograms of raw grain, and 15-20 kilograms of husk are obtained.

  • Rice husk: Rice husk, which is the outer covering and husk layer of rice, cannot be eaten.
  • Rice bran: Bran, which is the top layer of rice, is used as a component in mixtures and concentrated foods. Low quality brans are added to animal feeds, while high quality varieties are used in mixtures for human consumption.
  • Rice bran oil: Rice oil, a high-quality cooking oil obtained from rice bran, is used in the food industry.
  • Broken grains: Grains obtained by breaking rice grains are considered as broken rice. Consumed as stuffed rice and soup, rice is also used in the production of rice flour and pet food.
  • Rice flour: Ground, unhulled rice is used as flour. Rice flour, which has become the choice of those with gluten allergy, can also be used in dough making. Since paddy has an intense nutritional value, rice flour also takes its place in the tables with the advantage it offers in terms of nutrition.
  • Hull: Hull, which is a fuel and insulation material, is also obtained from paddy.

Rice, which is the most consumed form of paddy, differs from other plant foods with its nutritional value. There is an average of 5 mg sodium, 120 mg potassium, 60 mg calcium, 31 mg magnesium, 1.5 mg iron, 136 mg phosphorus, 0.130 mg vitamin E, 0.100 mg b1, 0.07 mg vitamin B2 in 100 grams of uncooked rice.

Where Is Paddy Grown?

China, India, Indonesia, Bangladesh and Vietnam are among the world’s leading countries in paddy cultivation. Turkey, on the other hand, finds its place among the top 50 rice-growing countries in the world. Turkey ranks 50th in terms of production area and 35th in terms of agricultural production. In addition, Turkey makes our farmers smile as it is the 6th country with the highest rice yield in the world. Rice cultivation in our country is mostly done in Samsun, Tokat, Çorum, Amasya, Çorum, Çankırı, Sinop and Kastamonu. Although paddy is cultivated in almost all geographical regions, Marmara Region (Thrace) and Black Sea Region hold the lead in terms of area.

According to the rice farming publication of the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry , the development season of the crop lasts longer than 6 months. The crop develops better when the temperature is 25 degrees or below during rice cultivation. Irrigation with fresh water, slightly acidic soil makes the area much more suitable for paddy. Rice grows better in heavy soils with an impermeable substrate. For rice cultivation, the soil pH should be between 5.5 and .7.5, but it can adapt to soils with a pH between 3 and 8. For the crop, which is especially preferred for saline soil improvement, the soluble salt concentration in the soil should be below 600 ppm.

How to Plant Paddy?

The cultivation of paddy for many years in a row reduces the yield. Experts recommend planting forage crops and legumes in the field after 2-3 years of paddy cultivation. After the land leveling is done with a leveling knife, grader or laser leveling device, deep plowing is carried out in autumn. After the pans are made in the spring, the land is processed by disc harrow or crowbar.

On average, 15 kilograms of small-grain, 17-18 kg of medium-grain, 20 kg of coarse-grained seeds are given per decare. It is recommended to plant approximately 500-600 seeds per square meter. Before seeding, seeds are germinated in water for up to 2 days. At the same time, pesticides are also applied with fungicides.

Planting time is determined by the type of crop, air and irrigation water temperature. The rice crop should be grown in the temperature range of 18-35 degrees during the germination and seedling period. It is considered ideal to have a water temperature of 12 degrees Celsius for planting.

For rice planting, spreading, sowing, seedling methods can be preferred. Before sowing, it is ensured that the pans are blurred and that a thin shaft is formed on the seed. The water in the pan is emptied 3-4 days after the seeds are attached to the soil, and a small amount of water is given after 5-6 days.

What Fertilizer Can Rice Be Fertilized With?

According to the rice farming publication of the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, the nutrients to be used for paddy fertilization are determined after the soil analysis in the pan. Generally, nitrogen fertilizers are used for paddy. Especially  ammonium sulfate An average of 80 kilograms is applied per decare. Half of this fertilizer is given in sowing, and the other half is applied 55-60 days after sowing. Some of our farmers consider it appropriate to give part of the remaining half at the beginning of tillering and the other part 50-60 days after sowing. If there is a zinc deficiency in the soil, 1-2 kilograms of zinc fertilizer is given per decare before planting. In case of zinc deficiency after planting, fertilization is done by spraying from the top until 5-7 days before the beginning of the cluster formation period. Phosphorous fertilizer can also be used in the soil before planting. It is enough to give about 20 kilos of TSP fertilizer per decare.

Rice is harvested with almost 80% of the clusters being straw coloured. During this period, the moisture content of the grains is expected to be between 22 and 24. After the products are dried and stored, they are processed and ready for consumption.

Cotton, classified among tropical plants, is one of the pile-rooted crops. Cotton measures 80 to 120 cm tall. The crop with an upright stem has a root that goes down to 180 cm. Some of the cottons of different varieties have broad-footed leaves, while others have thin, long or deeply carved leaves. The flowering and harvest period is known to be long compared to other crops.

Cotton, which is used in the textile industry, is the main material of fabric making with its fibers. The seeds called Çiğit are processed in the vegetable oil industry. Cotton, which is planted and processed all over the world, is one of the important values ​​of our country. The plant, which is cultivated especially in the Çukurova Region, is seen as the symbol of Adana. Known as Çukurova’s white gold, cotton is being planted less and less every day due to low purchase prices and late payments in the market. The cotton farmer plants cotton on fewer fields each year. The hope for the right steps to be taken and changes to be made in the market remains.

How is Cotton Production Made?

There are many points to be considered while producing cotton. Special cultivation notes for cotton production, which requires intensive labor because it requires irrigation and is very difficult to process, are listed as follows:

  • When growing cotton, it is absolutely necessary to apply crop rotation. It is recommended to pay attention to points such as winter precipitation and soil leveling while performing the October rotation. The most preferred plants in October rotation; legumes, potatoes, cereals, peanuts, corn, paddy and forage crops.
  • It is considered necessary to prepare the soil before planting cotton. First, the soil is turned upside down by ploughing at a depth of 25-30 cm. Deep release ensures the destruction of wild roots. In addition, the soil aerates and mixes to create organic matter. This process also increases the porosity and water holding capacity. Thus, the soil gains a more fertile form.
  • After the cotton harvest, the cotton crops have to be cut into small pieces with straw cutters. However, the cultivation area is plowed at a depth of 25-30 cm.
  • Correctly adjusting the sowing time is also considered important for cotton production. Sowing time is foreseen considering the temperature of well prepared, normally annealed soil. If the temperature of the soil reaches 15 degrees at 8 am and the same conditions continue within 4-5 days, it is considered that the planting time has come. Although these conditions vary according to the climatic characteristics of the year, it indicates the average between 20 April and 15 May every year.
  • When all conditions are suitable, planting is started with seedlings or in sequence.
  • The row spacing is 60 – 80 cm. If the maintenance and hoeing will be done with a machine, the interval is 65-70 cm, and if it will be done with an animal, it is 50-60 cm.
  • An average of 5-6 kilograms of seeds are planted per decare.
  • Cotton seeds are not planted deep. The ideal planting depth is known as 4-5 cm. Seeds planted too deeply become more difficult to germinate. If the soil structure is very light, partially deeper planting may be preferred. It is strongly recommended not to plant deep when the soil form is heavy.

Where Can Cotton Cultivate Be Done?

The cotton crop loves the heat. Accordingly, cotton grown in aqueous environments grows in an average growth period of between 120 and 200 days. It is important to get through this period without frost. Since the water requirement of the plant will increase with the temperature, the water that cannot be obtained with normal precipitation must be given to the plants by irrigation. The plant, which grows on drained and alluvial soils, adapts to soils with a pH value between 6.5 and 7.5. The amount of precipitation in the cultivation region and its distribution by months are important for cotton cultivation. If cotton farming is to be carried out with rain, the region must receive at least 500 mm of precipitation, and 200 mm of precipitation must be regularly distributed during the development period of the crop. In addition, it is known that the excessive rainfall seen immediately after cotton planting affects seedling emergence negatively. Cotton farming suffers greatly in overly rainy or overly dry lands. When the winds, which are drying on the soil and crops, especially in the period when the cocoons blow, cottons; spilled, polluted, our farmers experience loss of fertility and quality.

Soil organic matter directly affects productivity in cotton production stages. For cotton production in our soils, 2% of organic matter is considered ideal. However, since microbial decomposition is rapid in hot climates, the problem arises that the percentage of organic matter in soils is too low. For this reason, organic fertilization is done in cotton farming. Thanks to the applications, the organic matter content of the soil can be increased by 10% to 20%.

The soil slope of the area where cotton will be grown must be at a level that will not interfere with the surface flow. Since cotton is grown by irrigation, it is very difficult to get the expected yield in the case of planting on sloping land.

What Should Be Considered While Producing Cotton?

  • The cotton variety to be planted in the region must successfully pass the adaptation studies carried out in that region. Not every type of cotton is considered suitable for growing in all regions of our country.
  • Early variety selection is of economic importance in cotton farming. Early varieties are advantageous as they offer the chance to be planted later. Thus, the risk of cold and frost caused by early planting can be reduced.
  • Long-lived varieties require higher maintenance, irrigation and pesticides. Again, the harvest of these crops poses a risk because it can be left to rain.
  • Cotton should be large and full, and should not contain foreign matter.
  • When choosing seeds, it is recommended that farmers make sure the germination rate is not below 70%.
  • It is recommended to prefer sterilized and medicated seeds against the pink worm problem.
  • It is noted that uncertified seeds should not be used.

When to Water the Cotton Plant? How to Care?

Among the cotton cultivation tricks, care takes up a large area. When proper care practices are not performed, yield and quality decline in cotton production.

Fertilization is seen as the first important maintenance item for cotton growing. According to the report on cotton cultivation published by the GAP Regional Development Administration, when nitrogen is deficient, the sorting, branching, number of fruits and flowers of cotton decreases. Its color is starting to turn light green and its veins are turning yellow. Nitrogen fertilizer application is carried out by giving a total of 30 kilograms of 20-20 compound fertilizer per decare area. During the process, it can be preferred to apply to the band by seeder or sowing. Phosphorus need of crops can be calculated by measuring over 7 kg per decare area. It should be noted that there are different rules for organic cotton production. The fertilizer obtained from organic animal production, not exceeding 170 kg of pure nitrogen per hectare per year, can be used in organic cotton cultivation. 60% of the water needed by cotton is taken from the 60 cm part. For this reason, while less water is given in the first stage, the amount of water given increases gradually. Early irrigation prevents development and also prevents flowering. The correct watering time can be understood from the appearance of the plant. Plants whose growth slows down, whose mature leaves turn dirty light green, whose leaf temperature increases, whose number of flowers begin to decrease, and whose leaves become wilted in the morning should be watered. Furrow irrigation method is recommended for irrigation. Plants whose mature leaves turn dirty light green, whose leaf temperature increases, whose number of flowers start to decrease, and leaves wither in the morning hours need to be watered. Furrow irrigation method is recommended for irrigation. Plants whose mature leaves turn dirty light green, whose leaf temperature increases, whose number of flowers start to decrease, and leaves wither in the morning hours need to be watered. Furrow irrigation method is recommended for irrigation.

In irrigated cotton farming, 2-3 times manual and 3 or 4 tractor efforts may be required, depending on the weed situation. When adequate hoeing is not done, drying caused by fungi that can be seen in the seedling period increases. When more seedlings appear, they should definitely be removed. It is important to make the dilution early and to complete it no more than 20 days after the seedling emerges.

If there is 60% cocoon opening in the field, it means it is ready for first hand harvest. In our country, cotton is harvested from mid-September to the end of October. Second-hand collection is also carried out in October.

When is cotton watered?

The first irrigation is done approximately 40-45 days after planting. Watering is stopped when about 10% of the bolls open. This period coincides with the average month of September. The wilting of the leaves in the morning, the dirty light green color of the mature leaves, the slowing of its development and the decrease of its flowers indicate that it should be watered.

In which region is cotton grown mostly?

Most of the cotton planting in Turkey is done in the Southeastern Anatolia Region. Şanlıurfa rises to a leading position in cotton cultivation after both the climate characteristics and the investments made within the scope of the GAP. Cotton production is also carried out intensively in other provinces such as Hatay and Aydın.

How Is Grape Cultivated?

The vine appears to belong to the order magnoliophyta from the kingdom plantae, the class magnoliopsida and the order vitales. The genus vitis of the Vitaceae family and the vitis vinifera species of this order are called vines. Grape is the name given to the fruit of the vine. The history of the grape, which is one of the oldest culturally produced fruits, dates back to 5000 BC. It is known that there are over 10,000 grape varieties identified today. The most common grape varieties in our country are Sultani Seedless, Sergeant, Ada Karası, White Grape, Bornova Misket, Hamburg Misket, Horozkarası, Müşküle, Misket, Öküzgözü, Boğazkere and Kalecik Karası. . Grapes, some with seeds, some without seeds, some red and some white, are among the economic income sources of our farmers.

Where and in which season do grapes grow?

It is believed that the homeland of the grape is Asia Minor, which includes Anatolia, and the region that covers the Caucasus. Turkey, which has a very old viticulture culture, is also home to many different grape varieties. About 1200 different grape varieties can be grown in our country. Turkey is located in the most suitable lands for grape growing. Grapes can be grown in Turkey’s Aegean, Marmara, Mediterranean and Southeastern Anatolia regions. With commercial and amateur viticulture, Turkey ranks 4th in the world in terms of vineyard area and 6th in fresh grape production.

Where and in which season do grapes grow?

The climate and soil requirements of the grape are the primary conditions for grape cultivation. Grape is a selective crop in terms of soil and climatic conditions. When the right factors come together, efficient production can be made. In vine cultivation, places protected from the wind are more preferred. The grape, which has a very long development phase, needs an average of 10 degrees per day. Accelerating its development at this point, the crop continues to develop until the temperatures drop in autumn. Each grape variety needs a certain temperature until it completes its development. For this reason, the total annual active temperature in the places to be bonded should be at least 1600 degrees. In economic production, it is recommended that the annual average temperature be between 9 and 21 degrees, and between 17-20 degrees in hot seasons. In early maturing species, As of full bloom, a total temperature of 1600-2000 degrees until maturity, 3000 degrees or more is needed in late maturing varieties. Because the roots of the vine go deep, the grapes can be grown in regions with less rainfall. In addition to the annual precipitation amount, the distribution of precipitation is also important for viticulture. Rainfall in winter and early spring is thought to be beneficial for viticulture. It is underlined that rains at the beginning of summer and at the end of spring can pose a danger because they increase the risk of fungus. Grapes are damaged by spring and autumn frosts. In addition, grapes, which are sun-loving plants, need at least 1250-1300 hours of sunshine during the development period. In commercial viticulture, this period is calculated over 1500-1600 hours. Late maturing varieties require a total temperature of 3000 degrees or more. Because the roots of the vine go deep, the grapes can be grown in regions with less rainfall. In addition to the annual precipitation amount, the distribution of precipitation is also important for viticulture. Rainfall in winter and early spring is thought to be beneficial for viticulture. It is underlined that rains at the beginning of summer and at the end of spring can pose a danger because they increase the risk of fungus. Grapes are damaged by spring and autumn frosts. In addition, grapes, which are sun-loving plants, need at least 1250-1300 hours of sunshine during the development period. In commercial viticulture, this period is calculated over 1500-1600 hours. Late maturing varieties require a total temperature of 3000 degrees or more. Because the roots of the vine go deep, the grapes can be grown in regions with less rainfall. In addition to the annual precipitation amount, the distribution of precipitation is also important for viticulture. Rainfall in winter and early spring is thought to be beneficial for viticulture. It is underlined that rains at the beginning of summer and at the end of spring can pose a danger because they increase the risk of fungus. Grapes are damaged by spring and autumn frosts. In addition, grapes, which are sun-loving plants, need at least 1250-1300 hours of sunshine during the development period. In commercial viticulture, this period is calculated over 1500-1600 hours. Because the roots of the vine go deep, the grapes can be grown in regions with less rainfall. In addition to the annual precipitation amount, the distribution of precipitation is also important for viticulture. Rainfall in winter and early spring is thought to be beneficial for viticulture. It is underlined that rains at the beginning of summer and at the end of spring can pose a danger because they increase the risk of fungus. Grapes are damaged by spring and autumn frosts. In addition, grapes, which are sun-loving plants, need at least 1250-1300 hours of sunshine during the development period. In commercial viticulture, this period is calculated over 1500-1600 hours. Because the roots of the vine go deep, the grapes can be grown in regions with less rainfall. In addition to the annual precipitation amount, the distribution of precipitation is also important for viticulture. Rainfall in winter and early spring is thought to be beneficial for viticulture. It is underlined that rains at the beginning of summer and at the end of spring can pose a danger because they increase the risk of fungus. Grapes are damaged by spring and autumn frosts. In addition, grapes, which are sun-loving plants, need at least 1250-1300 hours of sunshine during the development period. In commercial viticulture, this period is calculated over 1500-1600 hours. It is underlined that rains at the beginning of summer and at the end of spring can pose a danger because they increase the risk of fungus. Grapes are damaged by spring and autumn frosts. In addition, grapes, which are sun-loving plants, need at least 1250-1300 hours of sunshine during the development period. In commercial viticulture, this period is calculated over 1500-1600 hours. It is underlined that rains at the beginning of summer and at the end of spring can pose a danger because they increase the risk of fungus. Grapes are damaged by spring and autumn frosts. In addition, grapes, which are sun-loving plants, need at least 1250-1300 hours of sunshine during the development period. In commercial viticulture, this period is calculated over 1500-1600 hours.

In grape cultivation, the vine is grown in soft textured soil because the roots go deep. In the summer, arid, less rainy soils are considered ideal for vineyards. The vineyard soil is expected to be deep and have a high water holding capacity. If the soil structure is suitable for root development, grapes can be grown even in nutrient-poor soils. Grapes can be grown in alkaline, acidic and neutral soils. In areas with a pH above 9, insufficiency may be observed due to salinity and sodium toxicity. In areas with very low pH, the deficiency of some nutrients such as phosphorus can cause problems in viticulture. Soil analysis in grape cultivation is done not only from the upper layer, but also from the upper and middle soil layers. Thus, more accurate analysis can be performed for the crop.

What are Grape Growing Techniques?

Among the grape growing techniques, five basic production methods are counted.

  • Propagation by seed: For the method used in breeding studies, the seeds are separated from the grain flesh, washed and dried. It is protected in a paper bag, away from moisture until sowing. The seeds, which are planted in moist sand or mortar with 3-4 cm intervals and kept at 4-5 degrees, around December and January for germination, are left to fold for 3 months. After cooling by folding, gibberellic acid solution is applied, and it is germinated by placing it in a greenhouse at 25-27 degrees Celsius and 80% humidity at the beginning of March. Then the vines taken to the acclimatization greenhouse form 50-60 cm shoots in the fall. By the second summer, the vine length reaches 2 meters.
  • In the immersion method, a one-year branch of the vine is dipped into the ground without leaving the trunk. It is reproduced by rooting. A one-year branch is extended to the empty area and buried in the pit at an average depth of 25-30 cm. The branch tip is then brought above the ground and tied here. After cultural processes such as pruning over the eyes and blinding the eyes under the ground, the following year, the part of the branch that remains under the ground with the vine is cut.
  • Annual rods from which steel will be taken in propagation with cuttings are cut in the rootstock log, leaving a hole at the bottom. The bars, which are bundled with the same ends to one side, are taken to the steel cutting and sorting places. Cuttings 20-40 cm long are prepared from one-year branches. These steels need to be 6-10 mm in diameter.
  • In the method of propagation by vaccination, on the other hand, table-side grafting and vineyard grafting methods are used.
How to Plant and Fertilize in Grape Growing?

There are standard planting forms used in grape cultivation.

  • In square planting, weak varieties that require short pruning, cultivated with human power, and planted in the ground are used. Saplings are planted at a distance of 1-2 meters.
  • Rectangular planting points to vineyards using high cultivation systems. In these vineyards, which are processed with animal and machine power, the distance between the rows is 1-2 meters and the distance between the rows is 2-3 meters.
  • In triangular sewing, sewing is done on three equal sides. When six omca are combined, a hexagonal shape is formed. Triangle planting, which is a more difficult planting style than others, is mostly preferred by small businesses.

After the planting method is determined, pits are dug in the marked places as deep as two shovels. Burnt barn manure is mixed with fine soil and thrown to the bottom. After the sapling is pruned for planting, the strongest of the shoots is left. The sapling is placed in the middle of the pit and at least 10-15 cm of its trunk is covered with soil. The seedlings are compressed airtight. The process is completed by giving life water and planting herk.

Fertilization in grape cultivation varies according to the soil. Soil analysis is considered necessary before fertilization. According to the grape growing certificate of the Ministry of National Education, the amount of pure fertilizer to be applied is generally 10 kg nitrogen and 8 kg phosphorus per decare in dry conditions. In aqueous conditions, the amount of nitrogen increases to 14 kilograms and phosphorus to 9 kilograms. Farmyard manure and phosphorus fertilizers are mixed into the soil between rows in autumn, during tillage. Nitrogen fertilizers are given before the first tillage in the spring (February-March). It is recommended to apply the second half of the nitrogen fertilizer in April-May.

How to Harvest Grapes?

Table grapes are harvested when ripe. Ripening is evident from the color of the grape, the color of the cluster stem and skeleton, the color of the seed, the separation of the flesh from the seed, and the flavor. Testing the acid and sugar ratio is seen as the safest way to determine maturity.

  • It is recommended to use scissors or knives while harvesting.
  • Ripe bunches are harvested.
  • It is important that the haze layer in the grains is not erased.
  • The clusters are harvested without being damaged.
  • It is important to collect the cut bunches slowly and put them in containers.
  • The cluster is cut by holding the stem, it is not plucked by hand.

Pistachio, whose homeland is the Middle East and Central Asia, is a crop that must be grown with care. Pistachio, which is a delicate tree and requires hand picking, provides the care it needs with its flavor with its different varieties. Pistachios, which are the most demanded in our country and grown in large areas, can be grown with different garden plant techniques.

Pistachio cultivation techniques are listed as follows:

  • Pistachio cultivation can be done by direct seed sowing. 3 rootstock seeds are planted in a seedbed in autumn. After a year, the best growing ones are left in the garden and the others are uprooted. Considering the development status of seedlings that are resistant to arid soil and drought, grafting is carried out after the fourth year.
  • Pistachios take their place in the garden with seedlings. This method is not recommended because the retention rate of seedlings irrigated at least twice in the summer is low. In addition, when pistachios are grown with seedlings, it is a disadvantage that the vaccine is late.
  • Pistachio can be grown with tube seedlings. In this way of cultivation, the established garden needs to be irrigated. If it will not be watered, planting is carried out in the fall. With this method, yields start to be obtained 3 years earlier on average compared to other cultivation varieties.

How to Plant Pistachios?

There are two different planting techniques of pistachios. Different techniques need to be applied for irrigated and dry farming.

  • Dense planting: When it is desired to grow pistachios by irrigation, dense planting is preferred. A distance of 5-6 meters between rows and 3-4 meters between rows is left. When 1-2 meters of rows are left, the affected trees must be removed because the area is closed in an average of 15 years. Dense planting helps to get more product per unit area. In addition, the ease of maintenance and harvesting makes this method preferred by our farmers.
  • Planting in dry conditions: In the method with wide planting spacing, the distance varies between 6-10 meters. In the method in which cultivated pistachios are used as rootstock, planting can be done at a distance of 8×8 meters. This method is used in autumn and spring plantings. However, autumn planting is not recommended if planting will be done in an area where winter will be very harsh. For planting in dry conditions, pits 40-50 cm wide and 60-80 cm deep are dug in the field. A little burnt barn manure is mixed with the surface soil and thrown into the pit. Then, grafted seedlings are planted so that the graft site remains on the surface. There is no harm in planting the seedlings deep. You can complete the planting by giving life water. Finally, you should not forget to sew herek.

During planting, 8 or 11 females and 1 male tree are placed. According to the prevailing wind direction in the spring, the male tree takes its place in the garden. After the rain, the weeds around the saplings are cleaned. In addition, in the first year of planting, it is recommended to water the seedlings every 20 days in summer.

Climate and Soil Requirement of Pistachio

Pistachios are grown in long, hot and dry areas in summer. The first criterion is the presence of sufficient temperature for fruit development and ripening. In addition, peanuts need low temperature for a certain period of time in winter. However, damage can occur if the winter temperatures fall to -15 degrees and below. Especially in places where cold air currents are intense, gardens are not established. It is known that pistachios wake up in March-April and bloom in the first half of April. The cold in this period means damage to pistachios. Rainy and cool weather negatively affects the spread of male pollen.

The strong root structure of pistachio helps it to grow even in very poor soil areas. Deep, filtered, loamy and partially calcareous soils are considered suitable for pistachio. It is important that the planted seedlings develop quickly, bear fruit early and provide yield, good soil conditions and regular maintenance.

Tillage for Pistachio Cultivation

When entering the winter, deep cross ploughing is made by using 3 or 5 socket plows. This allows rainwater to pass into the lower layers of the soil. After this version, the water retention in the soil is increased with the version perpendicular to the slope. Also, the probability of soil loss due to runoff and erosion is reduced.

In the spring, a 5-slot plow is used. With the help of a cultivator or a crowbar, you can make a superficial cross version. Thus, weed control takes place. While the first release is done in April, the second takes place in May, during the soil tempering. With the second version, a plug is also pulled into the garden.

On clay soils, the preparation is slightly different. In July, when the moisture in the soil decreases, the cultivator and the crowbar are pulled together and the final version is carried out. It is recommended that the areas where plowing cannot be made, such as around the tree trunk, should be plowed or hoeed in the spring.

Fertilization in Pistachio Cultivation

In order to determine the need of the soil when growing pistachios, you should definitely have a soil analysis done and decide on the fertilization according to the results of the analysis. However  , according to the sources of the Ministry of Agriculture , 3 to 5 kilograms of  ammonium sulfate fertilizer  can be given per tree. Fertilization is applied by sprinkling on the projection area outside the 1 meter circumference of the tree trunk in February. If the rainfall is low, fertilization can also be done in January. If the soil is poor in organic matter, between 40 and 100 kilograms of well-burned manure can be given per tree.

According to the results of soil analysis, if there is phosphorus deficiency, up to 2 kilograms of  triple super phosphate fertilizer  is used per tree. In case of potassium deficiency, between 0.5 kilograms and 2 kilograms of potassium sulfate can be given per tree. Both phosphorus and potassium are applied in January, depending on the tree’s age, according to soil analysis. The application is made as deep as possible. It can be given by means of farm manure to either the 20-30 cm deep area to be opened to the tree crown projection, or the 25-30 cm wide band to be opened or the lines to be opened with a plow on the crown projection edge.

What Are Pistachio Pests?

Pistachio eyeworm, inner moth, comma shell aphid, fruit inner worm, white shell aphid, branch moth pierces at the beginning of pistachio pests.

Should Pistachios Be Watered?

Irrigation in pistachio cultivation increases the yield by 30%.

How to Cultivate Cherries?

It is known that Anatolia is the oldest place where cherry cultivation is done. Cherry, which has more than 1500 varieties in the world, spreads widely. Turkey, America, Iran and Italy are the leading commercial cherry producers in the world. İzmir, Manisa, Konya, Afyon, Isparta and Denizli are counted among the provinces where cherry production is the most in Turkey. Kemalpaşa district of İzmir, Akşehir district of Konya, Sultandağı regions of Afyon are known as the leading areas in cherry cultivation.

Another important point in cherry growing is the selection of seedlings. When purchasing certified seedlings from reliable institutions, rootstocks suitable for the region should be preferred. In order to arrange the garden where cherry cultivation will be carried out, the soil is first cultivated. It is important to clean the land from the previous crop and to clear the soil from weeds.

In the document of Adana Provincial Directorate of Agriculture and Forestry on cherry cultivation, it is necessary to explode with a subsoiler at 90 cm spacing and depth, and to create drainage channels with 40-50 cm spacing according to the soil properties. It is recommended not to create a garden in areas close to forest areas and where there is frost base, and to prefer sloping and sloped places for cherry growing.

In addition, it is emphasized that the boundaries are determined in the north-south direction. The variety of cherry gains importance when determining the planting distance. In the Cherry Cultivation booklet of the Directorate of Fruits Research Institute, it is recommended to leave a distance of 5×6, 6×7 when planting bird cherry. In İdris rootstock, planting with 4×5, 5×6 m spacing is preferred.

Autumn is preferred for places with a temperate climate, and early spring is preferred for planting in other cherry growing areas. Before planting, care is taken to clean the damaged parts of the seedlings. Medicines are used to protect the roots. In addition, the  use of agricultural fertilizers  increases the yield while the seedlings are brought together with the soil. With Triple Superphosphate, Ammonium Sulphate or barnyard manure can be used. During planting, care is taken to keep the grafting area 5 cm above the soil. It is recommended to give life water, and when the eyes swell, a 65-75 cm long top cut is recommended.

How should the climate and soil be in cherry cultivation?

Many factors such as late spring frosts are considered important for cherry cultivation. It is recorded that cherry blossom buds can only withstand -2 degrees for half an hour, and almost all of them die at -4 degrees. Blooming flowers are damaged at -2 degrees. In addition, you should know that the winter cold is necessary to break the rest. Depending on the variety, cherries need 400-1500 hours of chilling below 7.2 degrees. In places with long winters, cultivating species that need short chilling can be harmful. A cherry tree in full rest can withstand up to -29 degrees.

It is important that the soil to be selected for cherry cultivation has a high water holding capacity and is well drained. The PH degree of the soil should also be in the range of 5.5–7.5. It should not be forgotten that it is important to protect cherries from fungi.

 Phytophthora can cause damage to trees in soils with high humidity. What is the Importance of Fertilization in Cherry Cultivation? It is known that the most important issue to be considered while growing cherries is fertilization. The yield of many cherry cultivars is declining due to the self-incompatibility problem. The inability to fertilize with own pollen makes the use of pollinator varieties that match the main variety, bloom and produce live pollen in the garden. It is recommended to use at least two pollinators in case of establishing a garden with non-fertile varieties. It is recommended that the ratio of pollinators in the garden be ⅛. In addition, during the flowering phase, a bee hive is placed in a minimum of 2 decares in the garden.

This helps to increase the fruit set rate. How to Irrigation and Fertilization in Cherry Cultivation? When irrigation and fertilization are done correctly, it increases the yield in cherry cultivation. Excessive irrigation can adversely affect the roots as well as cause excessive vegetative growth, while under irrigation creates drought stress in cherry trees. Therefore, among modern systems, drip irrigation technique is suitable for cherries. Mini-spring and flood irrigation is also recommended so that water does not come into contact with the root collar of the trees and its surroundings. Especially in the spring period, besides irrigation, the surface should be ventilated and weeds should be cleaned. In the use of fertilizers, it is important to consider the soil needs instead of making a general recommendation. You should not neglect regular soil analysis while growing cherries. What Should Be Considered During the Harvest Time in Cherry Cultivation? For harvest, it is observed that the fruit matures, reaches the size specific to its species, and reaches the appropriate color and taste. In our country, the period from the first days of May until the end of August is defined as the harvest time of cherries. Since cherry is a delicate fruit, picking has to be done by hand. For harvesting, it is preferred to collect the fruit with its stems early in the morning. The fruit should be collected from the bottom of the stems and the stems should not be damaged. In order to collect more durable and ideal fruit, you should not miss the harvest time. Untimely collection in taste and size; late picking causes problems such as softening. After harvesting by hand, the fruits are stored in a cool and dry place. It is ensured that the cherries to be exported are pre-cooled and made more durable. It may take 5-6 years for wild cherries to bear fruit. This period seems to be valid for strong growing rootstocks. In addition to this, 3-4 years are sufficient for fruiting in dwarf or semi-dwarf rootstocks that develop poorly. How to Fight Diseases and Pests in Cherry Cultivation? When the disease is mentioned, bacterial cancer, leaf borer, cherry fly, cherry leech, root collar rot, monilia and June beetle come to mind. Here’s what to do when faced with such problems: Bacterial Cancer: It is recommended to prune sick trees and apply burgundy slurry to the tree in spring. It is necessary to pay attention to the disinfection of the tools used during pruning. Leaf Piercing: It is preferred to remove the damaged parts from the tree by pruning and to apply pesticides. Cherry Fly: It is recommended to separate the wormed fruits. In addition, pesticides are applied during the fall period. Cherry Leech: The soil is cultivated in autumn and some of the larvae are removed in this way. However, spraying for cherry leech is also not neglected. Root Neck Rot: It is important to remove excess water and aerate the soil. Drying trees must be removed and lime extinguished. Medication support is recommended.

Monilya: Diseased leaves need to be plowed or burned. In addition, pesticides should be used.

June Beetle: Cleaning the grass is defined as the first thing to do against the June beetle.

It is emphasized that it is important for the larvae to come into contact with the sun while cultivating the soil.

Spring is expressed as the most suitable period in the fight against larvae. Medication helps solve the problem.

What are the types of cherries?

Bing cherry, black tartar cherry, Napoleon cherry, Stella cherry, Emperor Francis, Kristin cherry, Lambert cherry and black Douglas cherry are among the most grown cherry varieties in our country.

Where does cherry grow in Turkey? Cherry cultivation is mostly done in Marmara, Central Anatolia and Inner Aegean Regions in our country. However, small-scale aquaculture can be mentioned throughout the country. Isparta, Manisa, Afyon, İzmir and Bursa are among the places where cherries are most preferred.

Apple, which is one of the most produced products among temperate climate fruits, grows from deciduous trees and shrubs in winter. Apple trees, which are perennial woody plants, undertake the task of being an ornamental tree in addition to the agricultural apple growing function. Apple, which belongs to the Angiospermae (Angiosperms) subdivision of the Spermatophyta (Seeded Plants) division, to the Rosaceae (Rosaceae) family of the Dicotyledoneae (Dicotyledonous Plants) class and to the Pomoideae subfamily, is categorized in the malus genus.

Among the regions where apple grows naturally, Asia, Europe and North America are counted. It is mentioned that there are about 30 apple species in these areas. Turkey is among the countries with the highest yields in annual apple production in the world.

Processes for apple growing begin with the preparation of the garden. In the land where deep ploughing is made, aeration and sunbathing of the soil is ensured. If the land is sloping after leveling, terrace installation is started. In addition, drainage is required in places with high groundwater. As a result of soil analysis, fertilization is made according to the need and the planting of saplings is approached step by step. According to the information shared by Adana Provincial Directorate of Agriculture , generally 3-4 tons of burned farm manure per decare, 20-40 kg dap fertilizer per decare. or 25-50 kg of TSP is given. According to the soil analysis, after the relevant fertilizer is applied, seedling preparation is started. Injured and broken roots of seedlings are cleaned. Thanks to the planting pruning, the root-trunk balance of the tree is established. Topsoil is placed in the opened pits, seedlings are placed in the middle of the planting board with the graft point facing south. Making sure that the sapling is 15-20 cm above the soil, the entire pit is filled with soil and pressed well. After the life water is given, the planting is completed. The distances between apple trees vary according to species, rootstock, soil and climate. The distance needs to be greater on strong and nutrient-rich soils, and less in areas with weak soils and poor components. While sparse planting is recommended in humid areas, more frequent planting is preferred in arid soils.

in apple farming,

  • Weed removal is important.
  • The amount of irrigation varies according to the annual rainfall of the region. The fringe-rooted apple requires more water than other fruits and likes high humidity.
  • It is important to water apples during dry periods in summer. Early irrigation increases fruit set.
  • The most efficient irrigation system that can be used while growing apples is shown as sprinkler and drip irrigation .
  • Nitrogen fertilizers used for apples increase fruit quality and reduce shedding. However, fertilization needs to be finished before the pickle matures.
  • Phosphorus makes it easier for the apple tree to set flowers and set fruit.
  • Potassium promotes flowering, extends fruit size, density, flavor and storage time.
  • According to the information shared by Adana Provincial Directorate of Agriculture, it is recommended to apply ammonium sulfate or ammonium nitrate in the spring, before the buds burst. In autumn, it is important to apply dap to a depth of 10 cm.
  • It can be diluted to get good yield and quality product from apple. The dilution made before the fruit bud begins to form ensures that our farmers are offered larger, colorful, high quality, improved and regular products.

Where is Apple Cultivated in Turkey?

In our country, apple cultivation is mostly done in the city of Isparta. Nigde, Karaman, Konya, Antalya, Mersin and Denizli followed by Isparta. In Turkey, the Mediterranean Region is the leader in apple cultivation. It can be preferred for growing apples in the Aegean Region, Eastern and Western Marmara parts, Central Anatolia and Western Anatolia. Our country’s fertile lands are sufficient to meet 90% of Turkey’s apple need.

What are Apple Varieties?

  • Gala: Gala apples, whose flesh is yellowish, juicy and firm, are known for their yield. Harvesting is carried out towards the middle of the end of July in early regions, and towards the middle of August in other regions.
  • Red Chief: Medium-sized, juicy and aromatic fruit bearing, the tree grows weak and upright. It is harvested at the end of September.
    Starkrimson Delicious: The variety that grows on a medium-strength tree grows semi-erectly. The species, which is very productive, is collected at the end of
  • September. It is recommended to be grown in all apple growing regions.
  • Starkspur Golden Delicious: The species with a semi-dwarf tree is described as very productive. Apples with golden yellow, shaped, high quality and large fruits are picked in the second week of September. Durable fruits can be stored in cold storage for a long time.
    Jurseymac: The species that grows on very vigorous trees is highly productive. Jurseymac, which has large and swollen fruits, is a summer variety

Watermelon, an annual cultivar belonging to the citrullus species of the Cucurbitaceae family, is used in commercial production with Citrullus colocynthis and Citrullus vulgaris species. Citrullus colocynthis is known as edible, small and bitter watermelons. Citrullus vulgaris, on the other hand, refers to the watermelon species known in our country and consumed in almost every home.

Watermelon roots can be found mostly at a depth of 40-50 cm and closer to the surface. Watermelons, which grow widely on the soil surface, can have a trunk of 3-4 meters in suitable conditions. The leaves of the crop, which is distinguished by its slightly hairy branches, attract attention with its sliced ​​and slightly veined leaves. Watermelon crops with five yellow flowers can produce fruits that differ from each other according to their species. Depending on the species, the size, color and seed ratio of the fruit may vary.

Watermelon can be eaten raw or sliced ​​as a refreshing fruit. In addition, marmalade and pickles can be made from watermelon peels. It is also emphasized that the fruit can be used in making molasses. In the industrial field, watermelon is used in the form of flavoring to flavor candies and chewing gums. Watermelons have an important place in nutrition and human health. According to the watermelon cultivation document prepared by Adana Provincial Directorate of Agriculture, the fruit, which has an appetizing feature, is frequently consumed with its cooling feature, especially in hot weather. It is rich in B, C and A vitamins, but also contains Ca, Fe, P and Mg minerals. Consisting of 8-14% sugar on average, watermelons can be easily consumed by those who are on a diet, as they are low in protein, fat and calories.

Where Does Watermelon Grow?

There is a lot of different information about the homeland of the watermelon. While a group of studies point to North Africa, Sudan, some sources state that the main source is India. Wild watermelons are found in these regions. When it comes to cultivating, calendars take us back to the 15th century. Spreading from Egypt, Syria, Anatolia and the Balkans to Europe, watermelons become popularly consumed in many parts of the world with the rapid distribution of their seeds. Turkey stands out with its large production capacity that responds to 10 percent of the world’s consumption in watermelon cultivation. After China, our country, which is the largest watermelon producer in the world, is a guest on the tables of both domestic and foreign consumers with its sweet and juicy watermelons.

The regions where watermelon cultivation is most common in our country are listed as Aegean, Mediterranean, Southeastern Anatolia and Marmara. Adana takes the lead among the watermelon producing provinces, and Adana alone meets 20% of the country’s production. In addition, Diyarbakir is known as another city famous for its watermelon.

Watermelon crops show better yield in deep, well-ventilated, high water holding capacity, sandy, sandy-loamy soils. For watermelon cultivation, it is recommended that the soil pH be between 5-6.5. Watermelon, which draws attention as a plant resistant to soil acidity, can be grown by liming in highly acidic areas. Areas with diseases or pests, drainage problems, and a ground water level of more than 1 meter are not recommended for watermelon cultivation. Watermelon, which is a warm climate plant, is highly affected by the cold. For this reason, it is grown between spring and autumn under suitable conditions. Soil temperature is required to be at least 12 degrees and above when planting seeds. Watermelon, which does not like the humidity of the air, can get sick quickly in hot and humid regions.

What are Watermelon Cultivation Methods?
Watermelons are grown in three ways.

  • Row Method Watermelon Cultivation: In row method cultivation, which is an easy and economical way, lines are opened 1.5 – 2 meters apart and 5-6 cm deep with a plow. Sowing is done by leaving 2-4 seeds in each planting place with 90 – 100 cm spacing on the row. The land is then raked and the lines are closed. The soil is lightly pressed and the bolt is pulled. Seeds germinate in an average of 10-12 days and begin to appear on the ground.
  • Quarry Method Watermelon Cultivation: At the bottom of the pits dug with a diameter of 40-50 cm and a depth of 15-20 cm, bedding is made with 5-10 cm thick manure soil. Then 3 or 4 seeds are planted and covered with a depth of 2-3 cm and pressed lightly. After the first hoe, a maximum of 2 seedlings are left in each quarry and the rest are removed.
  • Pit Method Watermelon Cultivation: In the pit method, which is the cultivation method of Diyarbakir watermelons, pits of 1 meter length, 50 cm width and 50 cm depth are dug at intervals of three meters in spring, after the water recedes. The pebbles are taken out, leaving only sand in the pit. Then rotten pigeon manure is added and moist sand is added again. 3-4 watermelon seeds are planted on this pile formed at the two ends of the pit. The seeds germinated within 10 days begin to turn into seedlings. When it has 3-4 leaves, only 1 seedling is left in each heap. About 1 month after planting, a mixture of barn and pigeon manure is added to the pit and filled with moist fine soil. As at the end of May, burnt barn manure, pigeon manure and miles are given to each pit.

How should pruning be done in watermelon cultivation?

In order to get quality products in watermelon cultivation, thinning is required. Depending on the size of the variety, 1 to 3 fruits are usually left on a crop. Thanks to the watermelons that are plucked when they are still small, other fruits ripen better. The side seats that do not have fruit on them are cut off from the bottom and pruned. Tip removal is done to prevent the main shoots from getting too long. In this way, fruit growth is strengthened instead of grading.

How to Irrigation in Watermelon Cultivation?

In our country, watermelon cultivation is generally done without water. However, in very dry periods, irrigation may be needed several times. It is preferred to irrigate in the form of leakage by releasing water between the rows, to use sprinkler irrigation or drip irrigation methods.

How Is Fertilization Made in Watermelon Cultivation?

Watermelon, which has a high growth and spreading power, needs nutrients. For this reason, fertilization is considered indispensable for watermelon cultivation. Nutritional support changes according to the character and richness of the soil. However, according to the Ministry of National Education’s Department of Gardening, watermelon cultivation course grades, 5-6 tons of burnt barn manure, 15 kg of nitrogen fertilizer, 30 kg of phosphorus fertilizer, and 20 kg of potash fertilizer are applied per decare.

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When to plant watermelon? In which month is sowing done?

The sowing period of watermelon is shown as spring. Sowing can be done in late April or early May. The suitable period for planting is determined by the soil and air temperature. Ideal planting time, the temperature of the soil should be at least 12 degrees.

How many days is watermelon harvested?

Harvest time of watermelon varies between 100 and 120 days, depending on the region and type of watermelon. It’s time to harvest; It can be understood from the brightening of the fruit, the fact that the peel can be easily peeled off with nails, the white spots on it turn yellow, it makes a loud sound when it is hit, it gets lighter, and the leaf 1 -2 cm away from the fruit stalk is dry.

It is known that the homeland of melon, which is considered among annual plants, is Asia. Melons, which spread to the world from Eastern Anatolia, the Caucasus, Iran, Afghanistan and Turkistan, are grown all over the world today with different varieties. Melon, which is a reptilian crop of cucurbitaceae, is known for its large fruit. Melon seems to belong to plantae kingdom, magnoliophyta branch, magnoliopsida class, cucurbitales order, cucurbitaceae family, cucumis genus and cucumis melo species. Melon cultivation can be done in almost every region of our country, except in very cold regions. The melon, which has a short and thick taproot, reaches an average root depth of 20-30 cm. It has 3 to 5 main shoots. Melon seeds, which are yellow in color, can be preserved for 5-8 years under suitable conditions. In this way, our farmers can use their seeds for a long time while growing melons.

How Soil and Climate Characteristics Should Be in Melon Cultivation?

Melon cultivation is done especially in warm and hot climates. Crop with long development time. It likes hot and dry weather but moist soil. Fungal diseases are more common in melons grown in humid weather. In addition, although there are fruits that can ripen, a decrease in quality is observed. When the temperature is suitable and the contact with the sun increases, the sugar content of the fruit increases depending on the variety. Melons make a difference with their pleasant scents unique to their species. Those who grow melons underline that melons are easily affected by cold and die, especially during their developmental stages. Planting time is considered important in order to avoid the danger of frost during the growing process and to grow the melon. Our farmers can use covers to protect the seedlings from frost. In addition, starting planting when the soil temperature is above 15 degrees in the spring, without the danger of cold and frost, is also a solution to frost. Again, against the danger of frost, it is among the suggestions to complete the harvest before autumn. In order for melon seeds to germinate at a high rate, the temperature must be 25-30 degrees. If the conditions are suitable for full development and yield, harvesting can be done between 82 and 120 days. Elbette toprak özellikleri de bu süreçte oldukça önemli görülüyor. Kavun yetiştirmek için derin, geçirgen, humuslu, kumlu-tınlı, tınlı-kumlu topraklar öneriliyor. Özellikle rutubetçe zengin nehir kenarı arazilerde, düzenli sulama yapılan alanlarda, daha kaliteli ve iri mahsul alınabiliyor. Ancak nemli toprakta yetişen kavunların tatlılığının, kurak toprağa göre daha az olduğu biliniyor. Bu nedenle, çiftçilerimiz kavunu genellikle kuru tarım ile yetiştirmeyi tercih ediyor. Toprak birkaç defa, derin bir şekilde işlendikten sonra bol çapa yapılarak topraktaki nem muhafaza ediliyor. Bu sayede toprak, kuru tarımda bile kavuna nem sağlayabiliyor. Son olarak, kavun yetiştiriciliğinin, asit oranı yüksek topraklarda yapılamadığını bilmelisiniz. Kavun için pH derecenin 6.0 ile 6.7 arasında olması yüksek verimin sırrı oluyor.

What are the Methods of Growing Melon from Seed or Seed?

Melon cultivation is done in the field or through low tunnels. First of all, the land is prepared by doubling with deep plow (25-30 cm) and cultivator/diskaro. The second tillage period comes in February and March. The soil is processed in tempering and is ready for planting. Attention is paid to weed removal, autumn ploughing and ventilation. Growing from seed is usually started in the spring as a second crop. First, 6-8 tons of farm manure per decare is applied to the land. Spraying is done if necessary. After tillage, nitrogen, phosphorus and potash support is provided if necessary depending on soil analysis. The soil is leveled with the second version.

How is Grafted and Ungrafted Melon Cultivation Made?

Melon cultivation with seedlings provides an average of 15-20 days earliness compared to growing from seed. During the processes, six-hole plastic bags of 10×13 cm are used. Seeds are placed in bags filled with well-mixed mortar at a depth of 4-5 cm. 1-2 seeds are enough for each bag. After this process, the bags are placed in greenhouses and high tunnels. It is watered with strainer buckets. With this process, which is usually done in March, weeds can grow on the seedlings grown in time, in this case the grass is cleared. On average, the seedlings are ready for planting in 30-40 days. The seedlings are planted on the plowed and furrowed land with 2 meters row spacing and 75 cm row spacing.

Grafted seedling method melon cultivation is becoming more and more common. Since grafting increases fruit size and quality, our farmers prefer to grow melons with grafted seedlings. Also, this method helps in early harvest. Water, pumpkin or chestnut squash are used as rootstock for grafting. In the period when the rootstocks form their first leaf, a scratch is made about 1 cm below the leaf. You can use a razor or a cutting tool at this time. This part is attached with forceps by placing the upward cut end of the melon. The seedlings remaining in the vaccine care unit for 10 days are then placed in the normal plot. If production is made with grafted melon seedlings, base fertilizer should not be forgotten. It is important that the rootstock remains above the ground during planting and that the grafting point does not touch the soil. In hoeing, the grafting point is not covered with soil. In addition, compaction is preferred so that there is no space around the seedling roots. Throat filling is never preferred. In the planting, which is completed by giving life water, a fertilization program is created considering the strength of the rootstock.

Melon Harvesting and Storage Operations It is advantageous to harvest the fruits during the ripening period.

Melons that come to maturity are picked by hand plucking or cutting with a knife. It is recommended that the harvest, which should be done in the morning, be carried out in small heaps and that the products should not be kept in the sun for long. The melons, which are immediately shipped to the market or to the warehouse, are stored upside down if they are to remain in the warehouse for a long time.

What Are Melon Pests and Diseases?

Effective control of diseases and pests is important in order to obtain sufficient yield in melon cultivation. The most common diseases and pests in melon cultivation are listed as follows:

  • Wilt: As of germination, this disease can be seen during the development period. Seeds not coming out of the soil, yellowing or dying of seedlings are among the symptoms. Wounds and rot may occur in the root collar of the seedlings, capillary roots. It can be seen together with paleness, brown burns and gluing, which is of fungal origin. In this case, it is recommended to remove the diseased plants and spray them with fungicides 2-3 times after the plants start to branch .
  • Powdery Mildew: Old leaves cover the stem and stem after the disease, which starts with the appearance of round spots. The spots, which appear as white powder, then darken and development ends. In the disease that is being combated with pesticides, 2-5 sprayings may be required at 10-day intervals. Systematic drugs are recommended to be administered at 20-day intervals.
  • Aphids: Lice that feed by sucking plant sap cause leaf curling. You can get rid of lice with medication.
  • Anthracnose: The spots on the leaves with black and round-like spots combine and cause the leaf to dry completely. In the disease, which gives slight pits to the stems and fruits, the fruits turn orange later. The problem can be overcome with cultural measures and pesticides.
  • Mosaic virus: Both watermelon mosaic virus and cucumber mosaic virus pose a problem for melon cultivation. The watermelon mosaic virus is transmitted by lice. The virus, which creates blisters and green spots on the leaves, causes stunting and curling on the shoots. Failure to bear fruit can also be seen in crops that are sick in the early period. The use of clean seeds and the fight against lice are important against the virus. Cucumber mosaic virus also corresponds to great harm. Leaves with light green yellow spots are noticeable. The crop remains stunted. Fruit set is low and poor quality. It is recommended to select certified seeds and control lice for the cucumber mosaic virus, which is not controlled by pesticides.
  • Red Spider: Spiders that feed on sap such as lice settle under the leaves. Applying pesticides to yellowing, curling and drying crops produces solutions.

It is known that the eggplant plant, whose homeland is India and China, firstly spread to all Asian countries and then to Europe via Anatolia. As of the 17th century, eggplant cultivation begins in our country. In Turkey, the Black Sea, Central and Eastern Anatolia Regions take the lead in eggplant cultivation. Eggplant of the Solanaceae family, Solanum genus, is an annual in warm climates. In tropical climates, it grows as a perennial cultivar. In the tropics, eggplants appear in a more developed structure that resembles a tree. The scientific name of eggplant is Solanum melongena L. in the literature. Eggplant cultivation is mostly done outdoors in our country. Outdoor cultivation is chosen for summer vegetable production. Covered cultivation is preferred for production in winter and spring months. The most grown eggplant varieties in our country are listed as follows:

Kemer eggplant: It is known as a thin and long variety.

Halkapınar eggplant: Medium-sized, dark purple and fuller at the tip than the stem. Bostan aubergine: A large and wide variety, the vegetable garden is distinguished by its dark purple color. It is called tophane in Bursa and tophane in Izmir.

Kirmasti: The stem part of the species, which has a length of about 15 cm, is thin and the tip is wide. The eggplant variety with purple peel is grown especially in the Kemalpaşa district of Bursa.

Yalova49 eggplant: The stem of the aubergine, which is dark, blackish purple in color, is narrow. Fruit size reaches 20-25 cm.

Gonen eggplant: Eggplant with a light purple color attracts attention in almost every region.

What are the Suitable Climate and Soil Properties for Eggplant Cultivation?

Eggplant, which is a hot climate fruit, can withstand temperatures down to -1 degrees. The optimum temperature for the crop, whose vegetation period is 6 months, is measured at 25-30 degrees. At night, a temperature of 15-20 degrees is sufficient. When the temperature drops below 15 degrees at night, problems may occur in fruit setting. Development slows down in the cold and fruit color may open. Above 40 degrees, there are problems in root development and nutrient uptake. Below 8 degrees, the growth and flower production process stops. Our farmers know that the optimum temperature for sufficient yield in eggplant cultivation is 22 degrees. The humidity in the air is 55-60% and the soil moisture is around 60-70%. You should know that eggplant cannot be grown in clay soil. Heavy and moist soils cause root rot problem. Early yield decreases considerably in soils with poor drainage and low temperature. Eggplant is considered among the crops that are moderately sensitive to salt. The EC in the soil should be below 2.5 mS. Eggplant cultivation can be done easily in deep, permeable soils rich in organic matter and without problems in terms of nutrients. Loamy, loamy-sandy soils with pH in the range of 6-6.7 are preferred.

What are the Tips of Eggplant Cultivation?

  1. Eggplants should not be watered for 15-20 days after the first lifeline.
  2. It is considered important to give water at regular intervals after the first fruits. Especially during the harvest period, you should not neglect watering after each harvest. During the growing season, you should irrigate every 7-8 days.
  3. It is known that drip irrigation is the most suitable irrigation method for eggplant cultivation, but in our country, tube irrigation is still widely used.
  4. After the seedlings are transplanted, life water is given. If the weather is hot at the time of planting, the eggplant seedlings show a lifeless appearance in the first days. Our farmers should not be deceived by this appearance, the seedlings that hold up come to life in an average of 1 week. During this period, new seedlings can be planted in place of the seedlings that did not take place.
  5. The first hoe is done 7-10 days after planting, and the second hoe is done 20-30 days after planting. When the eggplant seedlings are branched and sorted, the hoe is terminated.

How to Cultivate Eggplant Seedlings?

The seedlings are grown in a separate area until the eggplant seeds are planted in their original place. In sowing, 5-6 grams of seeds are given to a square meter area. Seeds sown in rows are grown in this way, considering that the seedlings will form abundant hairy roots. There is a gap of 10 cm on the hot pillows. Seeds are planted in the opened lines. 0.5 cm of mortar is covered on the seed and lightly pressed with a wooden mallet. Afterwards, the pillows are wetted with filter buckets to ensure germination. Seedlings can be grown in viols as well as hot pads. The soil to be planted is first fertilized. Deep tillage in autumn is considered necessary for soil preparation. In the spring, a faceted version is sufficient. After raking, tubes or pans are prepared according to the irrigation method. In our country, mostly furrow irrigation is used in eggplant cultivation. Planting time is calculated according to the end of the spring frosts. The seedlings prepared in viols or hot pads are transferred to their original place with soil. Preventive spraying is done against diseases before planting. When the seedlings have 5-6 true leaves, they are surprised. You can prefer straight planting or planting on both sides of the furrow back. In double row eggplant cultivation, the wide row spacing is 90-110 cm. In addition, 50-60 cm between narrow rows and 50-60 cm between rows are considered sufficient. 2000-3000 seedlings are planted in a decare area.

How to Increase Eggplant Yield?

Fertilization is considered important to increase yield in eggplant cultivation. The development of plantings is supported by giving the recommended amount of fertilizer and water. In addition, the missing elements must be completed by performing a soil analysis. Copper, zinc and manganese application can have a positive effect on yield. It is recommended to collect and harvest the fruits in the period when the color is bright. Harvesting is done in such a way that the fruit stalk remains in the fruit. You can use a knife or scissors at this time. Harvesting at frequent intervals supports quality yield. In addition, it is recommended to control weeds and to start the fight without losing time when any indication of disease is seen. Finally, harvesting at the right time is also considered important for yield. Among the most common diseases in eggplant, powdery mildew , white rot, gray mold, early leaf blight and collapse are counted. In addition, bacterial wilt, root rot, root fungus, anthracnose and rot can be encountered. The pests seen in eggplant are nematode, gray wolf, leaf gallery fly, yellow tea mite, aphid , cotton leafworm, red spider , whitefly, danaburnu, thrips and stink bugs. You can apply to the agriculture directorates in your province and district for more information on effective fight against diseases and pests.

Fertilization in Eggplant Cultivation

Both barnyard manure and commercial manure are used in eggplant cultivation. 5-8 tons of burnt farm manure is thrown per decare, and then the land is prepared for planting by making deep ploughing. For eggplant cultivation, an average of 20 kg N, 10 kg P2O5, 25 kg K2O is given as pure per decare. In base fertilization, all of the phosphorus fertilizer is applied. Nitrogenous potash fertilizers are applied by dividing them into 3 or 4. The process is completed by giving some of it in the base fertilization, some before the first flowering, and the last part after fruit setting.

Cucumber, which is included in the cucurbit family, is one of the annual plants. Spreading from India to the world, cucumbers have been consumed by humanity for 5000 years. It is known that the cucumber crop has spread from India to China, Asia, North Africa and Southern Europe, and cucumbers are grown under favorable conditions all over the world today.

Cucumbers belonging to the cucurbiataceae family, cucumis genus and cucumis sativus species of the Cucurbitales team are grown in the Mediterranean, Aegean, Marmara and mid-northern regions of our country. Cucumber cultivation has a 5% share of all agricultural production in Turkey. Cucumbers can be grown both in the open field and in the greenhouse.

What are the Cucumber Varieties?

Cucumber, also known as cucumber, has about 90 different genera and 750 species. According to the sources of the Ministry of National Education, cucumber varieties can be classified according to both their shapes and areas of use. Some types are referred to as pickles, while others are categorized as table dishes. Pickle ones come in small sizes, while the large ones are used for table use. Bittex, standex, orion, melior, green spott are counted among the table varieties grown in the greenhouse. Argus, nimbus and hokus are pickle alternatives. When counting table varieties for cucumber cultivation in open fields, colorado, cubit, marketer, submarine, stays green, langa, Maltepe, Çengelköy, creek and Kilis cucumbers can be mentioned. The varieties that are pickled and grown in the open field are gherkin, belair, belmonte,

What are the Cucumber Growing Conditions?

Warm climate is preferred for cucumber cultivation in open land. Cucumbers do not like high and low temperatures. It is also known to be very sensitive to cold and cucumbers are immediately affected by sub-zero temperatures. When it comes to low temperatures, coldness, fungal diseases and drought-induced growth problems arise at high temperatures. In cucumber cultivation, it is recommended that the soil temperature be at least 11 degrees for good germination of seeds. The ideal range for germination is measured between 11 and 18 degrees. As the temperature increases, the germination rate also increases. When talking about the ideal climatic conditions for cucumbers, it is necessary to open parenthesis for irrigation. If irrigation is not done in hot and dry periods, you can see that both the development slows down and the fruits become bitter. For this reason, you should sow right after the danger of cold in the spring and you should not leave the cucumber cultivation to the hot and dry period. Additionally, growing cucumbers above 30 degrees invites wilting. High temperature causes diseases. In cucumbers with a low demand for direct sunlight, the lack of light duration and amount increases the formation of male flowers. If the amount of light is between 6000 and 8000 luc and the lighting time is more than 12 hours, it encourages the female flower rate. The female flower corresponds to the yield in cucumber cultivation. In cucumbers with a low demand for direct sunlight, the lack of light duration and amount increases the formation of male flowers. If the amount of light is between 6000 and 8000 luc and the lighting time is more than 12 hours, it encourages the female flower rate. The female flower corresponds to the yield in cucumber cultivation. In cucumbers with a low demand for direct sunlight, the lack of light duration and amount increases the formation of male flowers. If the amount of light is between 6000 and 8000 luc and the lighting time is more than 12 hours, it encourages the female flower rate. The female flower corresponds to the yield in cucumber cultivation.  In greenhouse cultivation, the temperature being above 35 degrees reduces yield and development. You can keep the temperature inside the greenhouse between 25 and 28 degrees. You can keep in mind that the lowest temperature for fruit setting should be 15 degrees. However, you should be careful not to drop below 12 degrees. During the vegetation period, the humidity should be between 70-80%. Humidity below 50% or above 90% is damaging to the crop.

How to Sowing and Planting in Cucumber Cultivation?

Before growing cucumbers, you should pay attention to soil preparation. Preparation requires extra care, as cucumbers are a crop with weak roots and close to the soil surface. Deep plowed soil in winter is plowed at a depth of 10-15 cm in spring, about 1 week before sowing and planting. After straightening and furrowing, the preparation is completed. In autumn or spring, 3-6 tons of well-burned farm manure is thrown per decare. It is important to do this process at least a few months before planting. According to the soil analysis, after the necessary deficiencies are completed through fertilizer types, sowing and planting processes can be started. In cucumber cultivation, sufficient number of mother and father crops must be provided in the field. Seed sowing can be done by hand/seeder in quarries or lines. After sowing the seeds, a handful of burnt farm manure can be thrown into the soil against the formation of a cream layer. The soil is kept soft by light sprinkler 5-6 days after sowing the seeds. If the cucumber growing area is dry, the pits are opened 5-10 cm deep. 2-3 seeds are left in moist soil. In regions with heavy rainfall, planting is completed with a cupola at a height of 10-15 cm. Single-row cultivation: This method is preferred in windy places considering the direction of the breeze. Germination is ensured by keeping the seeds in a wet cloth a few days before planting. 3-4 seeds are planted in the soil 2-3 cm deep and the soil is closed and pressed. Thinning is done when the germinating plant reaches 2-3 true leaves. In the single-row cultivation method, a 100 x 50×50 cm planting system is applied. Double row cultivation: 65-75 cm row spacing, 30-50 cm row planting distance is maintained in seed planting. Sowing is done in rows with a quarry or seeder. It is used as irrigation furrow after 65-75 cm row spacing. If it will not be used, the distance between rows increases up to 130-150 cm. This cultivation method is preferred in windless regions.

Production by seedlings (single or double row): The tubes are prepared in a width of 50-60 cm in single-row cultivation and 80-120 cm in double-row cultivation method. Seedlings are planted on the row at 40-50 cm intervals. The seedlings are watered 12 hours beforehand to prevent the soil in the root zone from falling apart. This process increases the retention rate. In general, planting 2000-2500 seedlings per decare for table cucumbers and 5000-7000 seedlings for pickles is sufficient. In addition, cultivation can be done by giving. If herek is used, the distances between rows and above are reduced and the number of crops is increased. Cultivation in greenhouses:

How to Fight Cucumber Diseases and Pests?

The selection of resistant varieties gains importance when growing cucumbers, which are suitable for diseases and pests. When growing cucumbers, weed pesticides are generally not used. Cleaning is done with a hoe. Spraying is carried out in accordance with the instructions against powdery mildew, mildew, aphid and red spider.

How Should Irrigation Be Made in Cucumber Cultivation?

Adequate irrigation is important in cucumber cultivation. You should know that the most critical period in terms of irrigation is fruit setting. After the seedlings are planted, it is recommended to water 1-2 times a day after the life water, until the fruits are seen little by little. Excessive irrigation is not recommended during this period. In the following periods, watering is required every 3-4 days.

Strawberry, which is categorized among berry fruits, can be consumed fresh as well as being processed. Strawberry, which appears as marmalade, jam, cake decoration, candies, and aromatic fruit, draws attention with its herbaceous structure. It differs from other fruits with its superficial root structure. According to the article titled Strawberry Agriculture of the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, roots can reach a depth of 60-70 cm in well-drained, well-drained soils. In the case of heavy soils, it is observed that the roots grow horizontally. Distinguished by a very shortened root stem and short crown, the strawberry plant has spiral leaves. The leaves in 2/5 order reach their full size in 2-3 weeks on average. Each leaf offers a life of 1-3 months. The plant, which continues to grow with arms developing from buds, is known for its cluster-shaped flowers. The following alternatives stand out among the main strawberry varieties: Aliso, tioga, pocahontas, Yalova 9, Yalova 15, Yalova 104, Balcalı 1, Balcalı 2, Balcalı 3, Balcalı 4, Douglas, Dana, Brio, 216, Pajaro, Chandler, Selva, Red Chief, Hoeoye and Lester. What are the Suitable Conditions for Strawberry Cultivation? The growth process of the strawberry plant changes depending on the length of the day. The yield of strawberries, which develop flower eyes on short days and arms on long days, varies according to the place and time of planting. For this reason, it is recommended to choose the type to be grown according to the regions, where a strawberry that gives high yield in one region may be unproductive in another region. Another factor that determines the quality of the crop is chilling. Strawberries need 400-500 hours of chilling. Although it is thought that strawberries can grow in very hot temperatures, it is underlined that plants can be grown in cold conditions down to -10 degrees. In very cold regions, the plant is protected from the cold by covering it with dry grass. So, what is the best soil for strawberries? Strawberry cultivation is done much more efficiently in strained, sandy, loamy and light soils. Soils with more lime are not suitable for fruit. It is recommended that the pH of the soil be between 7.0 and 7.5. When to Plant Strawberries? How to Sew? Strawberries, which are very sensitive to fungal diseases in the soil, are recommended to be grown in nematode-free areas. Experts agree that planting grains such as barley and wheat before planting strawberries makes strawberry farming more seamless. It is important that the lands where strawberries will be planted after grain farming are fumigated with pesticides. After the soil is deeply processed, 3-4 tons of farm manure per decare is thrown and it is prepared for planting. In addition, 30-35 kilos of compound fertilizer is given per decare. Large and large plots are processed with a furrow plow, and small plots are processed by hand. The soil is ready for planting thanks to the rollers 60-70 cm wide and 20-30 cm high. So when to plant strawberries, when to plant strawberries? The fruit, which has a total of 4 planting times, can be planted in spring, summer, winter or autumn. It is important to plant the seedlings in cool and humid weather. Before planting, a crown toilet is made so that 2-3 leaves are left for the seedlings to be planted at the level of the root collar in the opened pits. In this way, the retention rate of the plants increases. Lifesugar is given after planting is completed. In summer planting, irrigation is done 3 times a day for 12 days. It is recommended not to pluck the flowers that bloom 6-8 days after planting. According to the Strawberry Breeding publication of Ankara Governor’s Provincial Directorate of Food, Agriculture and Livestock, care must be taken not to bend the roots during planting. It is recommended to avoid deep and face planting. Where Does Strawberry Grow? Some types of strawberry can be grown in all our regions. However, it is known that the taste quality is high, productivity is good, and the most suitable region for cultivation is the Mediterranean Region. The Mediterranean Region is followed by the Aegean and Marmara regions. According to the Strawberry Cultivation brochure of the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, the Mediterranean Region leads the way in greenhouse cultivation. In the region, which has an important place in early breeding, the product can be obtained in November, December and January. Thanks to earliness, strawberries can be sold at high prices. In greenhouse strawberry cultivation, production is carried out in heated or unheated glass and plastic greenhouses, through high and low tunnels. The fact that the strawberries that bloom in the early period do not suffer from frost is the most important point in greenhouse cultivation. For this, sprinkler and heating installation is carried out in the greenhouse. It is also preferable to set up a second tunnel inside the greenhouse. In open cultivation, late spring frosts can be a problem in the Mediterranean region. The harvest of strawberries, which can be grown in all regions by taking the necessary precautions, varies according to the regions. The first crops are harvested in the Mediterranean from mid-March, while in other regions the harvest can be carried out in May and June. In addition, it is underlined that the yield of open cultivation is lower than under cover. How to Care for Strawberry Plant? The maintenance procedures required in strawberry cultivation are listed as follows: Mulching: Mulching is used to prevent weeds and to obtain early and high quality products. The bobbins are covered with black plastic. This covering process is carried out after planting in summer plantings and before planting in winter plantings. Watering: If you are wondering how to water strawberries, you should keep in mind that strawberry is a water sensitive crop. Overwatering causes fungus and chlorosis can occur. The water needs of the strawberry are met by using furrow, sprinkler and drip irrigation methods. Fertilization: Fertilization is done according to soil analysis. Fertilizer can be applied from leaves or soil. If fertilization will be made from the soil, fertilizer is given with drip irrigation. This method, which reduces fertilizer loss, has a higher effect on the plant. Strawberry, like many commercial plants, needs nitrogen fertilizer. Nitrogen support can be started about 1 month after planting and the application continues until the end of the harvest. In cold regions, fertilizer is given from time to time in winter. According to the Strawberry Cultivation brochure of the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, nitrogen fertilizers are used to reduce approximately 25-30 kilograms of pure nitrogen per decare. This rate is given by dividing by months. If drip irrigation is used, this fertilizer can be divided into weeks. When it is desired to increase resistance to winter cold, K ingredients are used. If there is not much lime in the soil, Ca support is preferred so that the fruits do not soften. In lime-rich soils, pH control is important. Our farmers are warned that chlorosis may occur when the pH exceeds 7-7.5. In order to prevent this, the use of Fe chelated fertilizers is recommended. It is recommended to clean the arms of strawberries for maintenance. It is stated that the efficiency decreases when the arms are cut. For this reason, it is important to clean the arms as soon as they are visible. Disease and pest control is carried out both in root, fruit and leaf. Soil fumigation or sterilization is considered essential against root diseases. In order to prevent fruit rot, systematic use of pesticides can be made and the drug is thrown away. In areas where rot is common, ventilation becomes important in greenhouse cultivation. In the plantings in the summer months, the distances between the rows and the rows of the plants are kept wide. Thus, the transmission of pests and diseases is minimized. Among the pests that cause the most damage to strawberries, red spiders, aphids, calf’s nose beetle, and kadı bite are counted. How many days does the strawberry germinate? Estimated germination time of strawberry seeds varies between 20-25 days. When do strawberries bear fruit? Well-pollinated, deformed plants are more desirable. After pollination, the fruit is expected to mature in an average of 30-35 days.

Onion, which has an important place in human nutrition, is also frequently used in the cuisine of our country. Vegetables, which can be consumed fresh and dry, are known for their richness in minerals and vitamins. As a cultural vegetable, its production and consumption continues to increase day by day. Onion, which is a biennial vegetable, usually produces a tuber in the first year and seeds in the second year. The onion plant, which is from the class of monocotyledone, from the family of alliaceae, from the genus allium, from the species of allium cepa L, is known as detached root. Each root is attached to the trunk separately. The aging roots fork and gain a fringe root appearance over time. The outcrop is distinguished by its rootedness. 75% of the roots of onions develop in an average of 20-25 cm deep into the soil. Plants that settle in the soil at a narrow angle can be grown frequently even in narrow areas thanks to these features. Next to the thin, long and white roots, the trunk reaches 10-50 cm in length. Leaves and heads can grow up to 20 to 60 cm depending on environmental conditions. The leaves offer a wide range of colors from gray to green. Onion varieties are basically examined in two categories. Summer onions and winter onions make up the two basic classes. summer onions; thick flesh, juicy, light colored, long shaped, coarse, loose, sweet and not resistant to waiting. winter onions; It becomes tight-headed, less watery, dark-colored, flat-shaped, bitter, resistant to waiting. What are the Onion Growing Conditions? Onion can be grown in a wide area, starting from the warm zones of the northern regions, to temperate and hot climates. Known for being resistant to cold, onions are grown partly effortlessly. It is noted that the degree of coldness that the plant withstands is between -8 and -10. Lighting time and temperature are among the factors limiting production in onion cultivation. The vegetable needs cool air during its early development period. High temperature is considered essential for head tying and head growth. It requires a temperature of 12.8 degrees in early development, 18-21 degrees in head attachment stage, 24-27 degrees in head maturation. For the seeds to germinate, the soil temperature must be above 0 and reach 20-25 degrees for emergence. Nutritional value and soil type are considered when choosing soil for onion cultivation. Onion can be grown in many soil types, from light soils to loamy and light clay soils. Loamy soils that are naturally loose, have a large water holding capacity, deep, humus and easily workable soils with a spreading root system are preferred. Sensitive to high acidity, onions are grown between 6.0 and 6.5 pH. When to Plant Onions? The sowing time varies depending on whether the variety is short-day, mid-day or long-day variety. Short-day onion varieties are planted between September 10 and October 10. The planting time of mid-day onion varieties and long-day onion varieties coincide with the same period. Both are sown as seeds between January and March. How to Cultivate Green Onions, Dry Onions? Onion cultivation can be done from seeds, seedlings, shallots and bulbs. Four different production types are preferred in our country. While three of the methods used in onion production are used by our farmers, one is applied in cultivation for academic studies. Onion seeds, called roe deer, point to the cheapest method of production. Growing from seed is generally preferred in production in large areas. The field is first cultivated at a depth of 15-20 cm. In the spring, as soon as the soil pan comes, surface cultivation is done. Seeds are planted in the soil that is crushed and pressed with a cultivator or rake. An average of 1-2 kg of seeds per acre is used in sowing by hand spreading or seeder. When the onion seeds are to be covered and planted, 0.3-0.5 kg of seeds are required per acre. Head diameter and quality are higher in seeds that are covered and sown. In this type of cultivation, there is no need for thinning. The seeds that germinate using the moisture in the soil are planted 2-3 cm deep on average. It leaves 25-30 cm row spacing and 8-12 cm row spacing. Germination takes almost 3-4 weeks. Production with seedlings is used in the production of green onions and head onions. Seeds are first sown on pillows with 5-10 cm row spacing and 0.5-1 cm row spacing. Warm cushioning is preferred in cold regions. It is covered with a glass frame. When the seedlings reach almost pencil thickness, they are removed from the pans and planted in the field. The planting spacing of 5 x 25 or 5 x 30 cm is maintained. This method, which is used in small-scale cultivation, is not very economical for large areas. When grown from seed, some onions do not form heads, no matter how much care is taken. Onions with a diameter of 1-2 cm are called shallots or pinches. Shallots are planted in the second year and used in onion production. Although this method is used in narrow areas, it is far from being economical for onion cultivation in large areas. In order to obtain shallots, 120 to 150 cm wide, 20-25 cm long boards are prepared and the work begins. Seeds are sown on the boards by sprinkling or in rows. 5-7 grams of seeds are used per square meter. Seeds sown as of February may also fall into the soil in March or April, depending on the region. The shallots, which develop in an average of 4-6 months, are left on the ground for 5-10 days after they are removed from the soil. It is established in the sun and spends the winter in storage. When planting, it is planted in the field in the spring by determining 20-30 cm row spacing and 5 cm row spacing. Planting shallots between 25 and 50 kilograms per decare is sufficient. Single row, double or multi-row sewing can be used. Cultivation with onion is preferred for scientific research. It is not used in commercial cultivation. Cultural processes are also carried out during onion cultivation. Onion, a superficial rooted plant, grows at an average depth of 40-50 cm. If it is grown in a constantly moist soil, too much watering is considered harmful. Excessive irrigation negatively affects the durability of crops. It is sufficient to irrigate once a week until full maturity, in the period from tying to ripening. The time between two irrigations varies depending on the soil and climate. In the ripening phase, irrigation is not done. Furrow irrigation is preferred if onion cultivation is carried out in the bobbin method, and sprinkler irrigation is preferred if cultivation is done on the plain. Drip irrigation, which has been shown among the most efficient irrigation techniques in recent years, is also used in onion cultivation.

Hazelnut is considered one of the rare crops cultivated for thousands of years in the world. Hazelnuts, which can also be grown in our land, are one of the main sources of income in our country, especially in the Black Sea Region. Hazelnuts, which can be consumed as snacks, processed and included in industrial foods, are also produced for oil. Hazelnut, which is known for its high calories and rich in fat, finds its place on the tables with its vitamins and minerals. According to Ankara University lecture notes, hazelnuts are categorized as Fagales (Beechaceae), Betulacea (Betula or Birch Family) and Corylus. The most economically cultivated species is known as Corylus avellana. The plants, which are distinguished by their shrub and single stem varieties, can be used as ornamental trees. Hazelnut varieties develop in bush form in Turkey. They can grow up to 3 meters in length. The leaves are round and slightly long, 10-12 cm long, 8-10 cm wide. Buds form on annual shoots from June. Green-colored husks surround the formed fruit, and the color turns yellow and red as it matures. While long and gripping husk is found in domestic hazelnuts, only mechanical harvesting can be done in foreign crops since husk is not inclusive. Pollination for hazelnut cultivation starts in November and December and continues until March. After the waiting period, fertilization takes place in May. Cotanak shedding is seen in June and July. What are the Appropriate Conditions for Hazelnut Cultivation? Hazelnut cultivation is done in humid and temperate climates. The annual average temperature is expected to be between 13 and 16 degrees. In winter, the temperature should not fall below -8 to -10 degrees, and in summer it should not exceed 36 to 37 degrees. It is considered necessary for the precipitation to be above 750 mm and to be evenly distributed over the months. Flowering and pollination are experienced at low temperatures in winter. Chilling varies between 350 and 1050 hours, depending on the type of crop. The cultivated hazelnut, which is grown in the temperate regions of the northern hemisphere and then spread to the world, is mostly grown in the Black Sea, Mediterranean and Pacific Ocean coasts. Hazelnut growing conditions are ideally met in these areas. Turkey is one of the countries where the most hazelnuts are grown in the world, Italy, America, Georgia, Azerbaijan, China, Iran, Spain, France and Kyrgyzstan are on the list. Turkey alone produces more hazelnuts than all other producing countries, meeting the majority of the world’s hazelnut needs. Hazelnut trees, which are grown in a wide area stretching from Istanbul to the Eastern Black Sea Region, can exist in 43 provinces of Turkey. It is underlined that 16 provinces have a say in commercial production. Among the 1st standard regions that stand out in production are Ordu, Giresun, Trabzon, Rize and Artvin. 2. Hazelnut cultivation can be done at a height of 3 stages starting from sea level. “Raising height” is defined in 3 branches from the coast up to 30 kilometers inland. The coastal branch extends up to 250 meters, the middle branch extends up to 250 meters and 500 meters, and the high road extends to a height of 500 – 750 or even 1000 meters. What are the Hazelnut Growing Conditions? The roots of the hazelnut are formed at a depth of 60 cm. It is not recommended to grow hazelnuts on superficial or rocky lands, in soils with an impermeable layer at the bottom, in places where there are clay and heavy soil layers. Hazelnut grows better in rich, loamy, humus, alluvial, permeable soils. The ideal pH level should be between 6 and 6.5. The slightly acidic feature provides better growth. It is recommended to pay attention to high ground water and to make drainage when necessary. It is recommended to create a terrace on sloping lands. According to the Hazelnut Cultivation document of the Ministry of National Education , it is recommended to clean all the remaining roots and parts before planting hazelnuts in the fields where perennial plants are grown. In the fields with annual plants, there is no need for land cleaning. After the general cleaning, attention is paid to drainage measures. It is important to prevent erosion on sloping lands. How Many Hazelnut Trees Are Planted on 1 Acre? Before answering this question, it is necessary to answer in detail when and how to plant hazelnut trees. When is the hazelnut tree planted? According to the Hazelnut Growing Technique article, it is known that the most suitable time for planting hazelnuts is autumn. In regions with harsh winters, planting can also be carried out in the spring, in cases where planting is late. So how to plant a hazelnut tree? For hazelnut cultivation, quarry planting is generally preferred. The number of saplings to be planted varies according to the land, and a calculation can be made according to the decare area over the quarry area. The quarry planting done on flat land is shaped around a 120 cm circle. 5-6 m is left between the quarries, and 4-5 m is left if the soil is weak. Holes are dug at a depth of 60 cm and 4-6 crops are planted around a hearth. How to Care for Hazelnut Tree? While answering the question of how hazelnut cultivation is done, hazelnut tree care has an important place. It consists of maintenance, fertilizing and pruning stages. Fertilization is carried out according to needs after soil analysis. According to the Hazelnut Cultivation document of the Ministry of National Education, 3-5 tons of farm manure can be used per decare to enrich the organic content of the soil. According to the need, phosphorus and potassium fertilizers are also preferred. After the basic fertilization before planting, an average of 40 grams of nitrogen fertilizer is applied per seedling from the first year to the 5th year. Half of this amount is given at the beginning of March, the other half at the end of May and the beginning of June, and the fertilizer is mixed by hoeing. In this way, the development of annual shoots is provided. Hazelnut generally provides its development with nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and calcium supplements. If there is a deficiency in these substances, fertilization is carried out by giving supports. Since the soil is acidic in the Black Sea region, calcium ammonium nitrate fertilizer can be used frequently. Phosphorus fertilizer is used in recommended amounts between November and February every 3 years. Potassium fertilizer is usually not needed, but if the analysis indicates it is necessary, it is applied every three years between November and February. Pruning is diversified with applications that start with shaping the seedlings. Pruning is done to increase yield. It is known that the pruning time for hazelnuts is autumn. Pruning is started when vegetation stops and leaves fall. So how do you prune a hazelnut tree? Pruning can be done with a pruning saw, pruning shears and a chepin. The saw is used for cutting main and side branches. Width and not long saws are preferred. Secateurs are preferred for cutting annual shoots and twigs. Cepin is used for root shoot cleaning. Although it is thought that cutting can be done with girebi, experts underline that girebi should not be used for pruning. Penetrating can create cleavage in the cutting areas, which causes the formation of areas where pests can harbor. How Many Years and How Much Fruit Does the Hazelnut Tree Give? The yield and fruiting period of the hazelnut tree vary according to care, land and climatic conditions. According to the information we received from Agricultural Engineer Fatih Bey, the owner of Tarfin Sales Point Çakır Tarım, an average time for fruiting can be specified throughout Ordu, one of the capitals of hazelnuts. If the tree is in muddy, clayey soil, sand pouring is required. After the air is provided to the soil and the tree is well looked after, fruit can be obtained from the pebbled hazelnut after an average of 3 years. Fruiting period in oily hazelnuts takes an average of 4 years. According to the article titled Hazelnut Harvesting Machine Design, written under the umbrella of the Mechanical Engineering Department at Karadeniz Technical University, the hazelnut yield is calculated as 130 kilograms per decare in Turkey. Depending on maintenance, terrain and climatic conditions,

Walnut, which has been grown in our country for thousands of years, is produced in a wide area today. Turkey is the 4th largest walnut producer in the world today. According to the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry’s publication called Walnut Cultivation, walnut is known as a long-lived tree. Trees with large crowns can grow up to 30 meters. Walnuts seem to belong to the juglandaceae family. It is known that the most common species in the world is Juglans Regia. Walnut, which is a good forest tree, is used in different industries for its timber and fruit. While the fruit, which has a very high nutritional value, is consumed a lot, the economic life of walnuts is more than 100 years, which makes our farmers smile. What are the Appropriate Conditions for Walnut Cultivation? Walnut trees like lands that are drained and deep, which do not hold much water due to their pile roots. In areas with high groundwater, trees become unproductive. Those who grow walnuts should also be sensitive to salt in the soil and water. Salinity can be the main source of yield problems. It is underlined that the soil pH should be between 6.5 and 7.5 in areas where walnuts will be grown. If there is a hard layer in the soil before planting, it is recommended to apply with a bottom cauldron. It is noted that another criterion for walnut cultivation is the climate. Walnut trees can be damaged in summer temperatures above 38 degrees. While late spring precipitation causes bacterial stains on walnuts, late spring and early autumn frosts also damage the yield. According to the document of Considerations when Establishing a Walnut Garden in Kırşehir, other notes about the areas where walnut cultivation will be made: It is known that the walnut tree is resistant to cold up to -25 degrees during the rest period. Kaolin is applied to protect from sunburn. It is important that the first application is carried out one week before June 21st. If the garden is to be installed in places where the wind blows hard, it is necessary to create a wind curtain. It is important that there are no frost pits in places where a walnut garden will be established. When a walnut garden is established on north-facing slopes, flowering is delayed and frost damage can be minimized. Walnut trees need cooling between 400-1800 hours. When and how many meters apart is the walnut tree planted? According to the document of Considerations when Establishing a Walnut Garden in Kırşehir, the development strength of the variety should be taken into account when planting a walnut tree. The planting distance is determined by taking into account the possibility of irrigation and the slope of the land. Before the planting year, pits of 100 x 100 cm and a depth of 150 cm are dug in the garden to be planted. In the pits opened with a shovel, the soil is turned upside down and the pit is completely filled. Thus, planting can be done more easily. Planting is carried out when the soil is tempered, it is important not to plant in frost and strong wind. According to the publication of the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry called Walnut Cultivation, pits are dug at a distance of 7×3.5, 8×4.8×8 or 10×10 m, 60 cm wide and 70 cm deep, before planting, depending on the soil conditions. After planting the saplings, everything is tied. The distance between the pollinator varieties and the main varieties should be between 50 and 70 meters. When Are Walnuts Pruned? After How Many Years Does It Give Fruit? The most important stages of walnut care are tillage, fertilization, irrigation, weed control and pruning. Shape and product pruning is carried out during walnut cultivation. Trees are pruned after severe cold and late spring frosts. After the cut, the wound surface is putty. The purpose of shape pruning is to make the branches obtuse with the trunk. After the sapling is planted, the process is carried out by cutting it from a height of 1 meter. So how do you prune a walnut tree? Cutting is carried out in cases where necked eyes are formed in the eyes below, without touching 1 to 3 eyes below the top cut. Walnut trees can be shaped with peak branching or modified leader systems. When pruning walnut trees, shoot tips should not be cut. It is recommended to avoid hard pruning on branches. Branch thinning is considered appropriate for lighting, but it is important not to leave the tree too bare. In addition, dried branches can be removed by pruning. According to the walnut publication of Adana Province Directorate of Agriculture and Forestry, ungrafted and wild walnuts begin to bear fruit at 7-10 years of age, and grafted walnuts after 4 years of age. According to the data obtained, an average of 6 kilograms of shelled walnuts are taken from wild trees, while a maximum of 2 kilograms of kernels are extracted. 6 kg of shelled walnuts and at least 3 kg of internal fruit are extracted from grafted trees. In grafted walnut orchards, around 4 kilos of walnuts are taken from a 5-year-old tree. This rate can reach 20 kilograms at the age of 8, 40 kilograms at the age of 12, 75 kilograms at the age of 14, and 120 kilograms at the age of 20. Which Fertilizer Is Thrown On The Walnut? Before the garden plant in walnut cultivation, soil analysis is made and the requirements are determined. Before planting, only phosphorus and potassium fertilizers are applied. Absolutely, nitrogen fertilization is not done at planting. Generally, 100 grams of ammonium sulfate fertilizer or ammonium nitrate fertilizer is used for each year of the walnut tree. Before planting, between 10 and 50 kilograms of triple super phosphate and 10-40 kg of potassium sulfate are given per decare. After planting, 10-30 kg triple super phosphate per decare and 15-45 kg potassium sulfate per decare are applied. When to Water the Walnut Tree? The walnut tree needs water in summer. Yield and quality increase in walnut trees irrigated in June, July and August. When to Graft a Walnut Tree? Which vaccine is given to the walnut tree? Four different vaccination methods are used in walnuts: Patch bud grafting: The vaccination time is determined according to the control that the seed does not give crust. If the seedling has come to the graft, it is watered 1 week before the grafting, 1-2 days after the watering, the seedling leaves are cleaned and the tip is removed. 2-3 leaves are left on pale branches. The grafts are cut and used daily. Rigid and plump pencils are selected. Vaccination is made with a special double-edged knife. The cuttings and seedlings, which are the shoots of the same year, need to be selected. After an average of 3 weeks, the vaccines are checked and the bond is dissolved. Omega vaccine: A few old seedlings with no results from patch budding are removed from the field and kept indoors for vaccination and temperature control. This is the point that makes the important difference of the Omega vaccine. Dilcikli vaccine: The oils of the graft and the seedlings are different and their diameters are equal. This method is tried in the spring of the second year in patch buds grafts made in the summer and on seedlings that do not take the graft. Split pen vaccine: This vaccine is applied to 1-year-old seedlings and wild trees that do not catch in the summer. In the spring vaccinations, it is necessary to cut the seedling top of the wild ones according to the thickness of the sapling before grafting. Cutting is done 20-30 cm above the soil level. Then, the sap is drained and left for 7 to 10 days, and then the vaccine is administered. Why don’t walnuts bear fruit? There can be many different reasons for the problem. Diseases and pests can prevent the fruit, as well as bad soil can cause problems. It is recommended to carry out soil analyzes regularly and to meet the deficiencies with nutrients. Why do walnut tree leaves dry up? Thirst, fungus in the roots, pests, diseases and nutrient deficiency in the soil can cause drying of the trees.

Tea, whose Latin name is Camellia Sinensis, is also grown in abundance in our country. Turkey, the world’s largest tea consuming country, also finds its place among the leading producers. It is known that the homeland of the plant, which grows in humid climates, is South Asia and Southeast Asia. The tea plant, which we often encounter in tropical and subtropical climates, is under 2 meters in industrial production and looks like a small tree. When released, it can stretch up to 9 meters in length. Tea, which has been consumed by people for 5000 years, has been grown in Turkey since 1888. Tea, which was originally intended to be grown in Bursa but could not be grown due to climate characteristics, is later planted in the Black Sea, and the successful result is the beginning of intensive production. Turkey continues to be the sixth in the world in tea production with the tea factories established one after another and the cultivated fields. It is known that the majority of tea plants grown in Turkey are seed production. Among the tea varieties is Camellia sinensis. sinensis (Chinese tea) and Camellia sinensis var. assamica (Indian tea) is listed. It is noted that the teas in Turkey are hybrids of Chinese and Indian teas. Tea Types and Characteristics: Chinese tea: It is distinguished as plants with a durable, tight hearth structure and short internodes. The veins and leaf tips of teas with a small leaf area are more obscure. It is more common for Chinese teas, which can be grown at high altitudes and low temperatures, to turn blind. Indian tea: It is known that Indian tea, which is resistant to cold and diseases, has a loose hearth structure. The shoot leaves are drooping compared to the stem. While blind orientation is less common, leaf veins and tip become more prominent. The phenolic components of the tea, which is productive and has a low flowering rate, are measured higher than the Chinese tea. What are the Suitable Conditions for Tea Cultivation? Tea is known as a plant that chooses a region and does not yield in the absence of suitable conditions. It is recorded that tea cultivation is carried out in the world between 0-20 north and south latitudes and that it can be grown in microclimate areas outside these areas. Regions with abundant rainfall and warm climate are considered ideal for tea. However, the annual average temperature does not fall below 14 degrees, the precipitation is not less than 2000 mm, and the regular distribution of rain to the months supports the production. Humidity of at least 70% is required to grow tea. Tea wants the temperature not to fall below 0, or even below 5 degrees, where it is planted. The upper limit is determined as 30-40 degrees. In the light of all this information, it is noted that the winter begins to rest under 12 degrees and the growth stops. Tea can be grown in many acidic soils, from sand to clay. Ideally, filtered and warm soils are preferred. Tea is damaged in calcareous soils. The pH level of the soil where the tea will be grown is expected to be between 4.5 and 5.8. In addition, it is not recommended to grow tea in heavy, dense clayey, impermeable ground water areas. The harvest time of tea changes depending on the climatic characteristics. In countries such as Turkey, Georgia and Japan, three shoots are taken in 6 months between May and October. In other producing countries, this interval can be up to 9 to 12 months. Since Turkey is a microclimate area, it is considered suitable for tea cultivation. Due to the Caucasus mountain range in the north of our country, which is located at 42 northern latitude, and because of the humid winds coming from the sea, tea can be grown in our lands. Where Does Tea Grow? Tea is a crop of which Turkey is one of the leading producers, but in which regions of Turkey does tea grow? The area, which is a first-class tea region in Turkey, stretches from the Georgian border to Trabzon’s Araklı – Karadere border. The Black Sea coastline and areas up to an altitude of 1000 meters within 30 km are called the first class tea region. Eastern Black Sea region; Due to the adaptation of tea to the climate and soil, it is considered the area where tea is grown in our country. Tea, the main product of the region, makes significant contributions to the socio-economic structure of Doğa Karadeniz. The area where tea will be planted must be suitable for the ecology of the tea. After considering the low groundwater level, climatic characteristics, and pH compatibility, it is time for the processes related to the slope. In the Eastern Black Sea Region, where there are sloping lands, terraces must be formed, slopes must be made to provide drainage from the terrace surface, and canals must be made. Terrace width varies between 1-1.2 m, then burnt farm manure is thrown onto the prepared area. It is preferred between 100 and 120 cm between rows and between 25 and 40 cm between rows. The product starts to be harvested approximately 4 years after planting, and the most productive age of tea is considered to be 8-10 years. The age of economic efficiency is considered to be 50-60 years. When Is Tea Planted? New shoots are planted in October, November and December to create a tea plant. While pruning and garden cleaning are carried out in the same period, May and June are considered ideal for weed cleaning and fertilization. How is Tea Collected? When is it harvested? Self-powered, hand-operated machines and scissors can be used in tea harvesting. Some producers, on the other hand, harvest tea with the hand-picking technique. While it is known that hand harvesting is preferred to preserve the quality of tea, it is underlined that machine and scissor harvesting provide much faster harvesting. Differences of Hand Harvesting and Machine Harvesting: The desired quality can be achieved when harvesting by hand. Leaf selection is carried out with precision. Dry or cardy leaves can also be mixed in machine harvesting. The antioxidant effect is higher in the leaves collected by hand. In machine harvesting, shoots are taken later than manual harvesting. Hand picking is slower, machine harvesting is faster. Not all machines are suitable for every garden, choosing a machine according to physical conditions is important. The labor cost of harvesting by hand seems to be higher. Machine harvesting costs more affordable prices considering the costs. In the tea harvest, young and tender tea leaves suitable for processing and the bud part are collected. The 2.5 – 3.5 leaf parts of the shoots are harvested. In our country, tea is harvested in three shoots. Here are the things to be considered in the tea harvest: Picking and scraping should not be done. It is important that the tea leaves and buds are not curled or broken. Tea leaves should be collected in a shaded place and delivered quickly (within 6 hours) to the place of purchase. It is important that the tea leaves do not come into contact with the soil and fertilizer until they are delivered to the factory. It is recommended not to compress the leaves, to transport them with appropriately sized equipment and not to damage them. When is tea collected? 1. Exile: May-June, 2. Exile: July-August 3. Exile: September-October In some years, when the climatic conditions are suitable, the 4th harvest can be done. What season is tea grown in? Tea is planted in autumn, grown in winter and harvested in spring and summer. What fertilizer is applied to the tea plant? According to the publication of the Tea Specialization Coordinatorship of Recep Tayyip Erdogan University called Fertilization in Tea Cultivation, 25-5-10 (NPK) compound fertilizers are mostly used in tea gardens. It is recommended to give 70 kilograms of fertilizer per decare. In addition, 3-4 tons of farm manure can be given per decare (every 3-4 years) according to the needs of the tea soils. Our farmers must have a soil analysis before fertilization. In order to regulate the soil pH, support can be obtained from organic fertilizers, dolomite and agricultural lime. Fertilizer is applied during the growth period of the tea, when the soil is moist. Fertilization is arranged in many times. It is recommended to apply the first fertilization in March-April, the second fertilization after the first harvest, and the third fertilization after the second harvest.

The fig, which is known as ficus carica in the botanical world, takes its name from the ancient settlement Caria in the Aegean geography. Figs have been cultivated in Anatolia for thousands of years. Figs, which are mostly grown in the Aegean Region in our country, reach the foreign market in dried form. Its homeland is known as Turkey. From the lands of our country; Figs, which are estimated to have spread to Syria, Palestine, China and India, are consumed all over the world today. Figs are grown in warm and dry places in winters and hot and dry summers. For fig cultivation, it is recommended that the annual average temperatures be between 18 and 20 degrees. Figs require high temperatures between fruiting and the end of harvest. For dried figs, the annual relative humidity must be below 50% in the areas where figs will be grown. Although figs are very selective about climate, it is not possible to see the same selectivity for soil. You can grow figs in almost any soil except moist soils. It is known that fig is a stubborn plant and can grow even among rocks and stones. However, the most fertile soils for figs are; deep, sandy-loam, rich in organic matter and calcareous soils. The best growth is seen in soils 120 cm and deeper. You should pay attention to the pH level of the soil where fig cultivation will be made, between 6 and 7 or a maximum of 8. Neutral and near-neutral soils are more suitable for figs. However, figs are not resistant to soil salinity and are susceptible to many herbicides. The easiest fig production is made with steel. Fig cuttings are made from shoots of one or two years, branches of vigorous and middle-aged trees. Healthy, 1.5-2.5 cm thick, 25-35 cm long cuttings are sufficient for productive fig cultivation. Steels with overhead projectors are more preferred. It is possible to take the cuttings directly to the planting area, but it is generally preferred to grow them in another area for rooting. Rooted cuttings are planted in March. What are the Fig Types? Fig varieties gain great importance during the commercial cultivation of figs. You should pay attention to the selection of varieties in terms of market value, fruit quality and yield. Among the varieties of figs, which are divided into two as fresh and dried, the varieties include sarilop, yellow zeybek, Bursa black, green autumn, purple fall, goklop, glassmaker, black sickle, sugar fig, plate fig, long eggplant fig, short eggplant fig, black fig, sugar fig. . How to Establish a Fig Orchard? It is necessary not to plant fruit other than figs in the fig garden. For these processes, which are called closing a garden, the land is first prepared by leveling and drainage. It is recommended to plow the garden 2-3 times before planting. If the soil is sandy, deep plowing is not necessary. Soil fumigation is carried out in case of nematodes after pest and weed removal. Fig saplings can take their place in the field in three different ways. You can prepare a fig garden with square or rectangular planting, triangular planting or contour planting. Contour planting is recommended on sloping lands as a precaution against flooding, while construction of a holding wall and terrace is important. In fig orchards, the distances between rows and between rows should be 6x8m, 6x6m, 8x8m. If the climate and soil conditions are suitable, 4×8 planting is done first. After 8-10 years, when the trees approach each other, a row is removed in both rows. How to Care for a Fig Tree? Fig trees grow better in places with an average annual precipitation of 625 mm. If the rainfall remains below 550mm, 1-2 irrigation is required. The irrigation in May is followed by the second irrigation at the end of June or the beginning of July. Lime application is done in autumn. Nitrogen fertilization increases leaf size and length of annual shoots. It also increases the number of fruits. It is noted that as the number of fruits increases, the fruit size decreases. Especially in dried figs, the quality decreases and the color of the fruit and skin becomes darker. Phosphorus increases fruit size. Potassium has a positive effect on both quality and product quantity. In addition, fruits grown in soil with sufficient potassium are less likely to be damaged by sun exposure. Lighter skin color, soft dried fruits are associated with potassium adequacy. Farm manure is given 2-3 tons per decare. When fertilizing figs, especially in rural areas, it is recommended to give green farm manure by growing plants such as broad beans and peas. When green manuring is done, there is no need to give additional nitrogen fertilizer. Nitrogen fertilizers are applied according to tree growth. Nitrogen fertilizer is recommended for trees with an annual shoot length of less than 15 centimeters. It is important to apply phosphorus and potassium fertilizers in autumn and in the first half of winter. Later application is not recommended. In addition to all operations, three operations can be applied in fig cultivation as shape pruning, crop pruning and rejuvenation pruning. Care is completed in fig cultivation with cultural processes such as transplanting and supporting. What Should Be Considered During the Harvest Time in Fig Cultivation? Fresh figs are picked early in the morning. Fruits should be collected in cool weather, without being exposed to the sun’s heat and direct sun rays. Figs are harvested by hand. Figs are pulled from the branch with their stems by twisting them left and right so that they are not crushed. It is important not to tear from the branch. If possible, the plucked fruit is placed directly into the container to be used for shipment. The packaging needs to be delivered to the market as soon as possible without being hit. Dried fig harvest is different from fresh figs. Uncollected figs lose water and fall off due to fungal growth on the stem. In the second half of the harvest time, the figs that fall or are dropped to the ground with poles are collected and taken to the drying areas. Crushing is prevented by using very wide baskets in collection. How is Drying and Storage Made in Fig Cultivation? If the figs are to be prepared for dry after the other fruits are mostly freshly picked, they are left on the branch for as long as possible. When it reaches the acrid stage, the fallen fruits are collected or dropped with poles. Dried figs contain an average of 25-50% water at this stage. The aim of drying figs is to reduce the water level to 18-20%. Figs dried in the pan are checked in the morning and afternoon, and when dried, they are taken from the exhibition. While the places that do not dry are turned upside down, care is taken not to get moldy. In order to prevent fumigation in dried fruits, processes such as vacuuming and carbon dioxide application can be done. After these stages, storage begins. Lime whitewashing of fig warehouses is important for protection from pests. Species that tend to darken are kept in cold storage, while other varieties are kept in cool areas. The humidity level of the products to be stored in the warehouse is maximum 22%. It poses a health threat as it shows microbial growth at higher humidity. In order to prevent fermentation and crushing, the height of the figs to be stacked on top of each other is calculated as 30 cm at most. In order to prevent contamination, the top of the figs is covered with a material such as tulle.

Lemon, which is included in the family known as citrus in our language, is considered to belong to the aurantioideae subfamily of the rutaceae family, the citrus genus. Lemons, which are related to fruits such as oranges, tangerines, and goldenballs, can be grown between 40 degrees north and south latitudes of the equator. Citrus production, including lemon cultivation, marks the largest fruit production in the world. From Brazil to America, from India to Mexico, citrus fruits and therefore lemons can be grown in many countries. In our country, the Mediterranean region comes first among the regions where citrus fruits are grown the most, followed by the Aegean and Black Sea regions. It is recorded that the annual production amount in Turkey’s lemon cultivation is around 1,000,000 tons. Mersin, Antalya and Hatay are the cities that are at the top of lemon cultivation in Turkey. Lemon cultivation is usually done on saplings. Selected, good seeds should be used in the production of seedlings. It is important that the fruits to be used as seeds are harvested from the tree. Seeds with high viability are prepared by planting in seed pads. Seeds that start to germinate in 7-14 days at a germination temperature of 27-32 degrees emerge on the soil surface in 15-20 days. It takes 45 days to complete the ride. At the end of this period, the seedlings are expected to form 3 leaves and reach 5-6 cm in length. Seedlings reaching 10-15 cm in length are taken into polyethylene bags with a mortar mixture after root toilet pruning. After irrigation, the side shoots are cut off to encourage growth in a single stem. In the greenhouse, the development accelerates with the temperature kept at 26-28 degrees during the day and 21-23 degrees at night. Humidity is expected to be in the 55-80% range. manually once a week, The seedlings, which are irrigated with drip irrigation every other day or every other day, become fertile when they reach 30-35 cm in length. After the grafting process, the garden plant and sapling planting processes can be started. The land where the lemons will be planted is shredded with a plow base after leveling. It is underlined that the most suitable release time is September due to dryness. When the calendars show January-February, herbicide spraying and marking are done against weeds. The side walls of the pits opened with auger are softened with a shovel against the formation of cream. A distance of 7×7 m is left between the two saplings. Planting distance varies according to the irrigation system. On well plowed lands, 35-40 cm diameter and 35-40 cm depth are sufficient for seedlings. By applying a square or rectangular planting system, planting is carried out by determining the distance between and above the rows according to the genus. In Which Season Does Lemon Grow? Lemon trees usually bloom in the spring. The maturation period varies between 6-9 months, depending on the type and regional conditions. Harvest in lemon cultivation is done in autumn and winter. In some breeds, the harvest period can be mentioned from the end of winter to summer. What are the Lemon Varieties? Research shows that the fruit consumed today as lemon is a hybrid of citrus and citron. Considered as one of the species adapted to the subtropical climate zone, lemon is not grown in areas that receive heavy humidity and precipitation due to its susceptibility to fungal diseases. In regions where lemons are grown, it is possible to talk about species that have adapted to that region. For example, in the Eastern Mediterranean regions of our country, Kütdiken, Meyer, Italian mammal, interdonato and lamas type lemons can be grown. On the other hand, in the Western Mediterranean region, interdonata, caracal and meyer cultivation come to the fore. Lemon varieties are basically divided into three groups. Sour lemons: Commercial species are categorized in this group. Sour lemons are studied in two main classes. Eureka: stump, Lisbon: interdonato, Cyprus, lamas, santa teresa, Italian mammal and Molla Mehmet. Sweet lemons (dorshapo) Lemon analogues (rough lemon, ponderosa, macrophylla) The most cultivated species in our country are briefly described as follows: Eureka: The tree crown of the eureka lemon, which has high fruit quality, is close to round. The harvest period of the fruit, which is more sensitive to cold, extends from late winter to summer. Eureka, which bears smaller fruit than Lisbon, has a smooth skin. Breast formation is less prominent. Each fruit has an average of 5-10 seeds. The fruits usually form in clusters. Lisbon: Lisbon lemons that grow upright have smoother peels. The harvest of fruit, which is productive and suitable for storage, takes place between winter and early spring. Interdonato: The breast of the interdonato, which is large, long and cylindrical in fruit shape, is tilted to one side. The fruit, which is moderately productive and prone to periodicity, is known as an early variety. It is harvested in September-October. Storage is not possible due to earlyness. What are the Lemon Growing Conditions? It is known that the main growing area of ​​lemon is semi-arid and arid subtropical regions, where the lowest temperature is -4 degrees above. Low temperatures are the most important factor limiting lemon cultivation. When the temperature drops, fruit quality and productivity are adversely affected. Lemon trees are especially damaged at temperatures below 0 degrees Celsius, freezing occurs even faster if there is fruit on the tree. The growth temperature for lemon is considered to be around 6-7. Unlike other citrus fruits, there is no mention of temperature summation in lemon cultivation. In addition, lemon begins to show development-growth at 30-32 degrees. When the temperature shows 38-39, growth and development almost stops. In addition, it is requested that the lemons be protected from strong winds and the humidity should not exceed 60-70. lemons, Lemon seedlings love oxygen and are very sensitive to suffocation. It is recommended to grow lemons in well-ventilated, drained soils. The effective root depth of the lemon is between 30-90 cm. Under favorable conditions, the roots can spread horizontally up to 7.5 meters away. It is recommended that the best soils for lemon cultivation are deep-strained, sandy-loam or clay-loam with plenty of humus. Lemon can be grown in light to medium weight, well resisted, loose, sandy, sandy loam, loamy, clay loam soils. The amount of lime in the soil is also important in lemon production. Lime being above 5% is important for the uptake of P and Fe elements. When our farmers are going to establish a garden, it is preferred that the soil pH be in the range of 5.5-6. Clay ratio not exceeding 20%, sand ratio being 50%, It is recommended that the loam ratio be 20%. In addition, it is recommended that the pore rate in the soil should not fall below 10% and the salt content should not be above 0.30%. How Should Fertilizer Be Used in Lemon Cultivation? Farm manure and phosphorus fertilizers are used as base fertilizer before planting lemon trees. It is stated that soil analysis is essential in lemon cultivation. The first application of fertilization is usually done in November-December. Together with phosphorous and potash fertilizers, farm manure is placed in a band with a depth and width of 15-20 cm opened at the crown of the lemon tree and closed. The type of fertilizer to be given varies according to the soil. You can fertilize according to the wishes of your lemon trees by having a soil analysis and consulting experts.

The cultivation of papaya, which is grown in both tropical and subtropical climate zones, is mostly done in Brazil, Nigeria, India, Mexico and Indonesia in the world. The crop, which is native to Southeast Asia, Australia and South America, is today a crop that is grown economically all over the world. The demand for papaya cultivation comes from a large number of different countries today. Papaya promises advantages for cultivation by laying fruit right after planting. In addition, propagation by seeds and keeping the seeds in suitable conditions for a long time are important features for our farmers. In addition, it can easily adapt to different climate and soil characteristics. All the qualities are cited as the reason why more and more people are in demand for papaya cultivation. Papaya, whose tree is tall and has a life span of several years, draws attention with its different structure. Its trunk does not show woody features. It has a soft-textured stem and leaves that emerge directly from the stem. Its roots go 20-25 cm deep and spread superficially. In addition, the hollow interior of the body and its running green coloration are among the distinguishing features. On the trunk of the papaya tree at the crown, you can see the long stems of its leaves that are constantly falling. The edges of the broad leaves, which look like stars, are toothed. Also, when you pluck the papaya leaves, you can see the milk flowing like a fig. There are two common types that produce long and round fruit. Long fruits are sweeter. However, the sweetness and aroma ratio of the plant can only be high enough to resemble a pumpkin. Although it looks like a melon, papayas are known to be rather tasteless compared to melons. Although the fruits, which are nutritious and rich in vitamins, appear dark green before ripening, they turn yellow and orange over time. Fruit weight is 600-800 grams in round varieties, 1000-1600 grams in long varieties. When you open the papaya fruit, you can find the light orange flesh cut into slices and lots of round, brown seeds inside. These seeds can be produced in the form of seeds. What Should the Climate and Soil Be Like for Papaya Cultivation? Papaya plant is best grown at a temperature of 25-30 degrees. In addition, the humid climate is considered an advantage for papaya cultivation. The plant, which requires plenty of sunlight, is quite vulnerable to the wind. For this reason, it is recommended to ensure that it receives the sun, but to be grown in areas protected from the wind. In addition, papaya is very sensitive to frost. It dies in a short time when it encounters sub-zero temperatures. If the temperature drops below 12-14 degrees, the growth and development of plants is delayed a lot. The annual rainfall demand of the plant is between 1200 – 1500. It is worth mentioning that papayas are not picky about soil either. The best papaya cultivation; It is made on light soils with good percolation. It is important because it contributes to the permeability and moistness of the soil. It likes deep, calcareous and well-drained soils with high organic matter content. The ideal pH range for papaya is between 5.5 and 6.7. In other words, papaya can be grown in slightly acidic soils. How to Grow Papaya? Four methods are used to propagate papaya. Propagation from seed, propagation by top immersion, propagation by cuttings and propagation by tissue culture can be preferred. The most commonly used and easiest method is propagation from seed. Papaya cultivation is done with seeds. You can start growing using at least 3-4 seeds. It is enough to cover the cores with soil. After about two months, you can see the seedlings ready for planting. For planting seedlings, you first need to dig a 45 cm hole. You can also place a stake in this hole at a distance of 2.5 cm, to which the plant can be wrapped. During the garden establishment, planting is done in a way that corresponds to 10 female trees and 1 male tree. After planting, flowering occurs until about 5 months. For example, after planting in February-March, the first fruit is taken in October-November. Summer months are expected for planting in cool regions. In this case, yield is obtained only in April-May. How to Water Papaya It is important to water the newly planted papaya seedlings regularly. When it comes to adult plants, there is no need for irrigation if it is a region that receives sufficient rainfall (1200 – 1500). However, irrigation may be required during dry periods. Weekly irrigations during the yield periods greatly increase the yield. However, excessive watering should be avoided. Excessive watering can cause flower and fruit drop. How Does Papaya Fertilizer Work? When growing papaya, you should definitely have a soil analysis before fertilizer application. Giving the plant more fertilizer than necessary brings more harm than good. In case of deficiency, nitrogen fertilizers , phosphate, potassium hydrate and magnesium can be given to the papaya plant . Combating Papaya Diseases and Pests When you will grow papaya, you must accept that your most important task is weed control. Cleanliness is essential for the proper cultivation of the soil around the crop. You must remove all weeds from the soil. For this, you can use your hand, hoe and work the soil superficially. Manual cleaning is often not enough. Then more intensive work is required. Because the roots of papayas in the nutritious part of the soil are also damaged during hand picking. It is also recommended to cover the plant with straw during the drought. In this way, weed growth is controlled and moisture in the soil of the crop is preserved. Among the most common diseases in papaya cultivation, mosaic virus, root rot, rot, powdery mildew , anthracnose, leaf blight, papaya ringspot virus disease, papaya leaf curl virus disease are counted. The most important pests of papaya are fruit fly , papaya whitefly and root nematodes. Our farmers can achieve success with the use of pesticides in the fight against diseases, pests and weeds . However, it is strongly recommended to get support from an agricultural engineer in order to apply the right content at the right time and dose. How to eat papaya? You can consume papaya by peeling the skins off and removing the seeds. You can put it on your table by slicing it like a melon. However, it should be noted that the taste of the fruit resembles a pumpkin rather than a melon. How to ripen papaya? If you have plucked or bought a green papaya, you should consume it by turning it yellow. It is possible to ripen the papaya with the help of a red apple and a paper bag. In order for the papaya to turn yellow, it should turn slightly yellow. If it is completely green, it is not possible for the papaya to ripen. However, if you have a papaya fruit that is starting to turn slightly yellow, you should put it in a paper bag with the red apple and close the paper bag. This way you should keep it in a dark environment. After a few weeks, when you take the papaya out of the paper bag, you can see that it has turned yellow and is ready to eat. Where does papaya fruit grow in Turkey? Papaya cultivation is done in the Mediterranean Region of our country. You can come across many of our papaya growers in Antalya and Mersin. Gazipaşa, Alanya and Silifke districts in these cities play an important role in papaya cultivation.

Kiwi, a South-East Asian crop, used to grow naturally under the forest. The deciduous crop in winter is recognized as a vigorous plant in the form of a vine. Known to have around 50 species, the kiwi fruit began to spread from its homeland, China, to other geographies in the 20th century. The species named Actinidia chinensis, which is cultivated, is grown in many corners of the world today. Kiwis, which bear fruit almost as large as a chicken egg, are known for their furry, brown and khaki fruit. Each fruit is 80-100 grams on average. The rough appearance on the outside almost camouflages the vibrant colors and tempting taste of the fruit. With the vibrant green part and edible black seeds in kiwis, they offer a tart taste and aesthetic appearance. Kiwi fruit, which is frequently used in desserts and salads thanks to its colors and taste, is mostly consumed raw. The high amount of vitamin C, vitamins and minerals in it also cause the consumption to spread rapidly. The kiwi, which is categorized as wrapping and climbing plants, has an outcrop and fringe root structure. Roots are located at a depth of 0 to 40 cm. In some conditions, the root length can be reduced to 1.5 meters. Since the vine trunk cannot bear the fruit weights, the crop supported by the stems after planting is shaped by pruning. The annual shoots of kiwis occur singly and in groups of three. Kiwi cultivation can be done in areas where winter is warm and summer is hot and humid. It is important that the eyes are not frozen during the development and harvesting processes from the awakening of the leaves to the fall of the leaves (between 240 and 260 days on average). Late spring frosts can damage the shoots. In addition, regions with constant and strong winds are not considered suitable for kiwi cultivation. The cold resistance of crops differs according to their age. Yield-year-old plants are resistant to cold temperatures up to -13 degrees in winter, while young plants can be damaged at temperatures of -4, *6 degrees. In regions where kiwi is grown, the average temperature must be between 12 and 16 degrees. With its relative humidity value, it indicates ideal conditions between 50% and 70%. Kiwi, which is a cold sensitive plant, wants to be cold despite all the information. 7. It is stated that the best soil for kiwi cultivation is filtered, light and deep. Unfortunately, kiwi cannot be grown in clayey, heavy soils with high ground water. In addition, the soil must be acidic. Appropriate values ​​for kiwi are reached when the pH is preferably between 5.5 and 7.0. Having a maximum lime value of 8% and cultivation in soils rich in organic matter helps the result to be positive. In which regions can kiwi be grown in Turkey? It is stated that the most suitable areas for kiwi cultivation in our country are the Black Sea and Marmara, and kiwi can be grown in our Mediterranean and Aegean provinces. While Yalova is the leading province of kiwi cultivation in our country, it is followed by Ordu, Rize, Bursa and Samsun. Trabzon, Giresun, Kocaeli, Mersin, Antalya and Artvin are among our other provinces where kiwifruit is produced. Is There State Support for Kiwi Cultivation? Kiwi cultivation is encouraged with organic and good agricultural supports. In addition, within the scope of garden installation supports, seedling support is provided. Our farmers, who can benefit from small family business support, are also faced with serious grant opportunities for the processing, marketing and storage investments of the kiwis produced. In addition, 50% of the policies are supported by the state in order to protect our farmers from natural disasters. If the producers are women and young, the support rates in the policy also increase. How to Do the Kiwi Pruning Stage? The kiwi crop needs regular pruning during the growing process. It can maintain the ideal development with shape pruning, winter pruning and summer pruning. Shape pruning: In the first year of planting, it is ensured that a smooth and upright stem is formed. In the first year, when the trunk height reaches 1.80 meters – 2 meters, the top of the shoot is cut and the branches are formed properly from the eyes that will be planted just below. The shoots that will form the branches in the second year are cut at the desired level at the end of the year. At this interval, the shoots emerging from the trunk are plucked. Winter pruning: In this form of pruning, called crop pruning, the dormant period is important. Pruning is done during the dormant phase. In the spring, pruning after watering the trunk will cause water loss, so sleep pruning should be given importance. Unwanted branches are cut from the bottom, the shoots under strong branches that have grown in the opposite direction are cleaned. Pruning is done according to age. In a four-year-old kiwi, 30-40 branches are left at the age of 12.5, at the age of 18, at the age of 6, at 24, 7 and above. Care is taken not to prune the short nodular fruit branches emerging from the main branches. Older branches need to be pruned deeply. Summer pruning: This pruning is done so that all branches receive the sun. In the process carried out immediately after flowering, the branches hanging from the non-blooming wires are cut first. On the axillary fruit branches that bloom, 4-6 leaves are counted from the last fruit and the remaining parts are pruned. The branches emerging from the old branches are also cut off. When to Harvest Kiwi? According to the article on kiwi cultivation published by the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, kiwi wakes up in late March and early April. According to the kiwi growing article in the Gardening lecture notes of the Ministry of National Education, fruit formation is completed approximately 20-24 weeks after fertilization. The harvest time of the crops that bloom at the end of May and in the first week of June is in the second half of October and the first half of November. In mid-December, leaf fall occurs. How to Care for a Kiwi Tree? According to the kiwi growing article in the Gardening lecture notes of the Ministry of National Education, kiwi care consists of basic cultural processes. Kiwis, a water-loving crop, increase yields when watered regularly. Dehydration can cause small fruits and the stem can become woody quickly. It is recommended to pay attention to the irrigation system when establishing a kiwi orchard. The most efficient irrigation system for kiwi is seen as drip irrigation. The roots, stem, leaves and flowers of the kiwi plant may encounter the disease. Therefore, pesticides are used. Particular attention is paid to the use of different drugs and pesticides to prevent fungal diseases and other problems. Fertilizing during kiwi cultivation is also one of the important stages of care. After the leaf and soil analysis, the fertilizer rate to be given is determined. It is necessary to give increasing amount of fertilizer to kiwis every year. Generally, organic agricultural fertilizers are applied in February and March. Nitrogen fertilizers are given in three divisions. While nitrogen fertilizers are applied in March, May and June, November and December are considered suitable for the application of phosphorus and potassium fertilizers. After planting, extra care should be taken for young seedlings. According to the article on the cultivation of kiwi in the Gardening lecture notes of the Ministry of National Education, the 1st year is divided into three for 30 g of urea fertilizer for 14 g of pure nitrogen, the 2nd year is 120 g of urea for 55 g of pure nitrogen, and the 3rd year is 110 g of pure nitrogen. Around 250-350 grams of urea is used. The maintenance process is completed with pruning and providing support. It is also recommended to place beehives in the garden at the time of pollination. How is kiwi production in Turkey? According to the Kiwi Breeding lecture notes of On Dokuz Mayıs University, Turkey has made rapid progress in kiwi production with the investments it has made after the 2000s. Kiwi orchard production facilities are increasing day by day, however, the production capacity is expected to be much higher in the future, as the existing orchards have not entered the yield age. While the kiwi yield per tree in our country is around 41 kilograms according to 2017 data, it is heralded that the production was 56,164 tons in the same year. After how many years will the kiwi bear fruit? Kiwi seedlings begin to bear fruit on average 4-5 years after planting. However, it takes 7-8 years to wait for the productivity period. Is kiwi watered? Until the crops are 4 years old, water is given with drip irrigation and then sprinkler irrigation. It is recommended to water twice a week.

Cabbage is known for being grown throughout the year in European countries. In our country, this period corresponds to most of the year, except for a few months. Plants, which are consumed both raw and cooked on our tables, find a place in our kitchen in abundance thanks to their contribution to health. There are red (purple), white and green (Brussels sprouts and black cabbage) varieties of cabbages that contain especially B, C, E vitamins and potassium. Cabbages have deep-reaching taproots and abundant hairy roots. During development, the main root rots and side roots are formed. Body thickness and length vary according to the variety. There are many alternatives of leaf and head cabbages with long and short stems, small and large heads. Since the seed germination rate of cruciferous crops is quite high (85-95%) and the germination power is maintained for an average of 4-6 years, cultivation is seen to be somewhat easier. Moreover, since the germination temperature is high (20-25 degrees), there is no additional trouble for germination. Cultivation of White and Red Cabbage White and red cabbages, classified as head cabbage, are mostly grown in the Black Sea Region in our country. White cabbage is used both in salads and in dishes such as kapuska and stuffing. The type known as red or purple cabbage usually comes to the table in the form of pickles or salads. Having long-term buyers in the market for two products is considered among the advantages of head cabbage cultivation. Where to Grow White and Red Cabbage? Cabbages grown in the cool period between autumn and spring are known as winter plants. Cabbage cultivation is done in humid plateaus, sea, lake and river shores, in cool areas. Although there are early varieties grown in the summer, the cultivation of these crops is usually interrupted during the summer period, as high temperatures have a negative effect on the quality. Head cabbages are grown with yields between 15-21.5 degrees. In the head formation period, the best results are obtained below 24 degrees. In addition, for proper head development, the temperature difference between day and night should be 5 degrees. Head cabbages, which are quite hardy, tolerate temperatures as low as -10 degrees Celsius. You should know that head cabbages are not picky about soil. You can grow cabbage in sandy, loamy, heavy clay soils. To achieve the best quality, you can choose sandy, sandy loam and medium weight soils rich in organic matter. How to Cultivate White and Red Cabbage? Cabbage growing processes are started in viols or pillows. It is possible to distinguish when it is time to plant the seedlings in the field, if they have 3-4 true leaves. The prepared seed pads are planted at 15 cm intervals, sparsely enough, into the openings. It is enough that the depth of the line is 2.5-3 cm. At this time, you should take care of watering the lines before planting the seeds. At planting distance, 50-90 cm row spacing and 45-60 cm row spacing are maintained. Early cultivars are planted more frequently, and varieties with normal growth cycle are planted less frequently. Head cabbages can be grown as a second crop after the wheat harvest. Seed sowing is carried out gradually between May and August. For planting, the calendar between June and the end of August is considered appropriate. October, November and March are determined as the damage period. How Should Fertilization Be Made in White and Red Cabbage Cultivation? Rich soils are required to grow large and leafy cabbages. For this reason, well-burned barnyard manure and commercial fertilizers can be used from time to time. You should definitely have a soil analysis done before fertilizing for the amount and type of fertilizer. In the light of this information, you can choose the food you will use among the fertilizer types. Generally, 15-18 kilograms of nitrogen, 8-10 kilograms of P2O5 and 12-16 kilograms of K20 fertilizer are given per decare for fertilization in cabbage cultivation. Phosphorus fertilizers are applied before planting, and nitrogen fertilizers are applied in two batches, one at planting and at the second hoe. Pest and Disease Control in White and Red Cabbage Cultivation Aphids and cabbage butterflies are among the most common problems in head cabbage cultivation. The problem can be overcome with preventive spraying. However, if no control is made, pests can cause a decrease in market value, slow growth, and prevention of head formation. How to Harvest Head Cabbage? Cabbage harvesting is done after the heads reach the desired size. This period corresponds to an average of 3-5 months after planting. The heads, which are kept in the field for 20-30 days depending on the variety, are cut with a knife from the soil level when they reach the harvest maturity. After cleaning the damaged leaves, it is offered to the market. Brussels Sprouts Cultivation Spreading around the world from Belgium and hence the name Brussels sprouts, the crop consists of small heads between 2.5 and 5 cm that grow in leaf axils. There are 35-50 sheep and goats on a crop. The plant, which contains vitamins C and A, iron and potassium, is consumed more and more every day in our country. Where to Grow Brussels Sprouts? Brussels sprouts, which are suitable for cool climates, are resistant to cold and frost. It requires an optimum temperature between 15-18 degrees and is known for being much more resistant to cold than other cabbages. It can be grown in humid areas where autumn is cool and long and winters are moderate. It is noted that high temperatures negatively affect the quality of the head. Well-drained soils rich in organic matter are preferred for growing Brussels sprouts. A pH of 6 is considered suitable for cultivation. It is important to use sandy soils for early varieties and lame soils for late varieties. How to Cultivate Brussels Sprouts? Seedlings of Brussels sprouts grown from seed are grown in viols or pillows. Approximately 4-5 grams of seeds are planted per square meter. At the planting distance of the seedlings, 70-90 cm row spacing and 45-60 cm row spacing are maintained. While the planting time is determined according to the ripening state, the harvest time is also taken into account. For example, if the seedlings are to be harvested between September and the end of December, the seedlings are planted in June-July. How Should Fertilization Be Made in Brussels Sprouts? According to Ankara University sources, when growing Brussels sprouts, 15-20 kilograms of N, 8-10 kg of P205, and 20-30 kg of K2O are given per decare. All phosphorus and potassium fertilizer types, and one third of nitrogen fertilizers are given in the first part at planting, and the remaining parts are given in two parts in the subsequent growing processes. Disease and Pest Control in Brussels Sprouts Among the main pests of Brussels sprouts, cabbage gall beetle, cabbage belly worm, cabbage butterfly and leaf moth, aphids are counted. The most common disease is black vein rot, which is caused by bacteria. You can overcome diseases and pests with chemical and physical interventions such as spraying, crop rotation and weed control.

Also known as the American pear, the fruit is found from Mexico to the Pacific Coast. Avocados grown on trees are enjoyed all over the world today due to their high nutritional value and taste. It takes the 20th century for avocados to become a commercial commodity, to spread around the world, and to start industrial cultivation. Avocado, which is the magnoliophyta division of the Plantae kingdom, the magnoliopsida class, the laurales family, the lauraceae family, the genus Persea, and the P. americana species, is a commercial fruit today. In the structure of the fruit, there is an average of 1-2% protein, 10-17% fat, 1.5-2.0% sugar and 80% water. The fact that it has a high fat content, being rich in healthy fatty acids, and containing 11 vitamins and 14 minerals makes avocado an important nutritional element. The avocado tree can grow either wide or vertically. The tree, which is green for all seasons, is seen in heights ranging from 6 to 20 meters. The avocado, which is against strong winds, draws attention with its crooked branching body structure. Its body has longitudinal slits, a fleshy bark, and a leafy crown. The dark green and oval leaves are distinguished by their spear-like shapes. Young shoots are seen in a coppery red color. Avocado fruits mature approximately 10-18 months after flowering. The fruits, which have different colors, sizes and shapes, vary between 200 and 600 grams. Oval, round and pear-shaped fruits have a large brown core in the middle. The bark is green and appears smooth or rough. The bark turns black as it matures. Shell thickness 0. It varies between 8 and 6 mm. The edible part of the fruit is light yellow. Avocado cultivation in our country is based on 4 main types: Bacon: The vertically growing type of bacon has an anise scent on avocado leaves. The species with good cold tolerance begins to bear fruit 3-5 years after planting. The weight of bacon species varies between 170-510 g. Fruits bearing medium-sized seeds are harvested between November and January. Hass: A species sensitive to low temperatures, Hass is distinguished by its common medium-sized tree. It bears fruit on average 3-4 years after planting. Its fruit averages between 140 and 400 grams. The fiberless, small-seeded type is best harvested between February and June. Suitability for transportation and storage allows this species to be cultivated frequently. Fuerte: Fuerte, which is moderately resistant to cold, bears fruit after 4-7 years. It gives fruit between 170 and 500 grams. The species, which has a medium seed size, is harvested between November and April. It is noteworthy that the shelf life of its ripe fruit is short, but fuerte can stay on the tree for up to 5-6 months after it is harvested. Zutano: A tall and upright tree, the ola zudano is known for being resistant to cold. It starts to bear fruit 2-3 years after planting. Fruit weight varies between 200 and 400 grams. It scores moderately in market and transport suitability, does not stay on the tree for long when mature. The fruit is harvested in November-December. Where Does Avocado Grow? The fact that it can be grown in a wide temperature distribution causes many countries to attempt avocado cultivation. Avocado can be grown in almost every geography, from desert coasts to cool and foggy climates. Avocado cultivation in our country is carried out in the Mediterranean coastal zone. 60-65% of avocado production in Turkey is in Antalya, 30-35% in Mersin, 2-5% in Muğla and Hatay. Alanya and Gazipaşa districts of Antalya are the leading districts of avocado cultivation. The land allocated for avocado cultivation must be sheltered from strong winds and cold. Avocado, a subtropical plant, is grown in regions with mild winters. Protection from frost and not being subject to sudden temperature changes are considered essential for efficient cultivation. Avocado varieties withstand cold temperatures from -2 to -6.5 degrees. It is recommended that the soils where avocados will be grown should be deep, fertile, well-drained, sandy-loam and alluvial. Avocado can also grow in soils with a pH close to neutral or slightly acidic (pH 5-7). It is considered important that the ground water level is between 1.5 and 2 meters. How to Grow Avocado? Avocado cultivation can be done in different ways. Avocados propagated by grafting can be produced by eye and pencil grafting on seedling rootstocks. According to the Avocado Cultivation article of the Ministry of Agriculture and ForestryWhen the seed is planted, the seed must have just been removed from the fruit. Before planting, the seed pods are removed and a thin layer is cut from the upper or lower part of the junction of the cotyledons to aid germination. Sowing is carried out so that the pointed part of the seed is at the same level with the soil surface, and the bottom part is under the soil. 10×19 planting spacing is required for the pillow and 40×90 planting spacing for the nursery. In polyethylene bag and pot planting, production starts by planting 1 seed in each container in a semi-shaded environment. Saplings grow in 2-2.5 years in semi-shade. In order to shorten the period, it can be preferred to produce in the greenhouse at the beginning and then in the semi-shade. Seeds are expected to germinate within 6 months, after which they become seedlings. How to Care for an Avocado Tree? According to the Avocado Cultivation article of the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, the seedlings are fertilized when they have 5-6 leaves. In the nursery, an average of 10 grams of pure nitrogen ( ammonium sulfate) is applied to each meter of the row of seedlings. When it comes to bag and pot cultivation, one teaspoon of nitrogen application (20-25 grams) is sufficient. Seedlings are maintained by watering between 7 and 10 days, and the irrigation interval can be shortened if necessary. There may be iron deficiency in avocados, in this case, support is provided by giving the necessary preparations. One of the maintenance stages in avocado cultivation is vaccination. When the crops reach the grafting thickness, the seedlings can be grafted with an eye or pencil. Bud grafting is done in autumn or spring when it starts to give scab, while pen grafting is done in spring in April and May. T or patch grafting techniques are preferred in eye vaccinations. In pencil vaccines, English with tongue, splitting, inlay, shell and side pencil vaccines can be applied. Since the summers of the Mediterranean region in our country are very hot, avocados produce a balanced crown. Shading can be done around after planting for about 3-5 years until it forms. Shading is one of the main maintenance steps for healthy breeding. The irrigation routine in avocado cultivation is similar to citrus cultivation. Irrigation is required during summer periods when rainwater decreases. It is recommended that the water to be used for irrigation should be poor in terms of chlorine and sodium. Otherwise, leaf tip burns can be seen. In avocado cultivation, irrigation with a bowl or furrow is preferred for each seedling in the first years of the seedling. With the trees starting to yield, pan and furrow irrigation methods are selected. It is also known that the most efficient irrigation methods and applications such as drip irrigation or mini sprinkler are used in avocado orchards. Pan and furrow irrigation is done every 7 to 20 days and lasts up to 6 months. When irrigation is done with drip irrigation, the operation interval varies between 1-7 days. Avokado ağaçlarına gübreleme yapılırken, her yıl artan miktarda, ağaç yaşına göre azot veriliyor. Dikim sonrası fidan gelişimi döneminde ilk gübreleme gerçekleştiriliyor. Ağaç hassas olduğu için gübreler ağaç gövdesine kesinlikle temas etmiyor, ortalama 20-50 cm uzağa veriliyor. Azotlu gübreleme, ilk yıl yılda toplam 50 gram saf azot, ikinci yıl 100 gram saf azot, üçüncü yıl 150 gram saf azot, 4. yıl 200 gram saf azot şeklinde oluyor ve gübreler birden çok defada tatbik ediliyor. Verime yatan avokado ağaçlarında dekara 15-20 kg saf azot, 4-6 kg fosfor ve 5-10 kg saf potasyum uygulanıyor. Ülkemizin Akdeniz Bölgesi’ne ağaç başına 3-4 kg amonyum sülfat, 500 gr süper fosfat ve 750 gr potasyum sülfat verilmesi öneriliyor.Avokado ağaçlarında dikim sırasında dikim tuvaleti budaması gerçekleştiriliyor. Daha sonra farklı terbiye sistemleri verilebiliyor. Dengeli taç gelişimi için dikimin ardından birkaç yıl budama sürdürülüyor. Verime yatmış ağaçlarda hasadı kolaylaştırmak için budamaya devam ediliyor. Budanan 2-3 santimetreden daha kalın dallarda kesim yerlerine aşı macunu sürülüyor. Hasattan hemen sonra başlanan budama gelişmenin başladığı zamana kadar gerçekleştiriliyor. Ayrıca yaz aylarında, ilkbaharda budanan kısımlardan sürgün çıktığında, uç alma yapılabiliyor. Deep tillage is avoided in avocados. When the soil pan comes after both irrigations in the summer, weeds are mixed into the soil using tools. If the land is narrow, this process is done by hand or with a hoe. Weed killers can be used to prevent root injury. Mulching is the last step of the maintenance routine. Mulching can be done on top of the root zone to prevent weed growth and reduce water loss from the soil. The process is completed with black plastic cover, straw and straw. Clean and covered tillage is preferred in productive gardens. You can use the Tarfin Mobile application for the types of fertilizers and other agricultural needs you need during avocado cultivation . By comparing the prices, you can shop in cash or on a deferred basis. By downloading Tarfin Mobil, you can follow the easy application steps. Is It Possible to Grow Avocado in a Greenhouse? Research shows that avocados can be grown in greenhouses. Especially the pinkerton type avocados show efficiency in the greenhouse.

Lavender paints large fields purple. It is also grown in our land with its industrial workability and decorative functions. Lavenders, from which essential oil is obtained from the flowers and stems and processed in the form of soap and perfume, find buyers to be used as decorative accessories after drying. Lavender plants, which are among the indispensable raw materials of the cosmetics industry, make a difference with the presence of linalool and linalyl acetate. The scent of lavender promises a calming, soothing and sleep-inducing effect. Lavender oil is one of the most sought after essential oils in the international market. Thanks to its industrial value, our farmers are also more and more interested in lavender cultivation. In addition, lavender cultivation is encouraged and agriculture is expanded within the scope of the Projects of Dissemination of Medicinal Aromatic Plant Production by different Provincial Directorates of Agriculture and Forestry in our country. According to the official statement of the Tokat Niksar District Governorship, which has signed these projects, lavender seedlings cover the investment cost in an average of 3 years. 30% in the first year, 70% in the second year, and 100% in the third year. An average of 2 liters of oil is obtained from 100 kilograms of lavender flowers. The value of oil in the world market is measured in thousands of liras. The stemless, dry flower yield per acre; It is recorded that it varies according to the type of lavender, climate and environmental factors, and weighs between 150 and 400 kilograms. What Are the Types of Lavender? Lavender, an essential oil plant belonging to the Lamiaceae family, offers as many as 39 different species in Southern Europe, North Africa and the Mediterranean. According to the information shared by Muğla Municipality’s Medicinal Aromatic Plants Local Seed Center, the most commonly grown lavender species are: Lavandula angustifolia (Syn. L. officinalis) Lavandula x intermedia (Syn. L. hybrida) listed as. Lavandula angustifolia is the variety with the highest oil quality, while Lavandula x intermedia stands out as an alternative with low oil quality but high essential oil content. The average essential oil is measured as 2-6 kg/da in Lavandula angustifolia and 6-12 kg/da in Lavandula x intermedia. The quality of lavender oil is determined by the ratios of linalool, linalyl acetate and camphor. According to ISO standards, lavender essential oil should contain 0.5% camphor. The 7 most well-known types of lavender of the Lavandula angustifolia species are named as follows: “Sevtopolis”, “Drujba”, “Yubileina”, “Hemus” , “Hebar”, “Raya” and “Karlovo”. It is underlined that these plants are mostly grown in Bulgaria. How to Cultivate Lavender and Where Can It Be Cultivated? According to the Lavender Cultivation document published by the Fruit Research Institute Directorate of the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, lavender is considered among the plants that are not selective in terms of soil. Lavenders, which grow very well in dry, filtered, calcareous soils rich in lime, with a pH between 5.8 and 8.3, withstand drought, heat and cold. It is also reminded that cold damage can be seen in very harsh winters. Those who ask how lavender cultivation is done encounter both vegative and generative production. In vegetative production, cuttings obtained from plants and rooted shoots are used. Perlite, kut, peat and forest soil can be selected as rooting soil. In the production with cuttings, rooting hormone support is taken and the rooting percentage is increased. In the winter dormancy period, the cuttings taken before the plant wakes up are planted in the rooting medium. Generative production is done with seeds. This method may be invalid because some lavender species do not produce seeds. When the seed is found, it is enough to sow the seed directly into the field. Considering the disadvantages such as weed problem and small seed size, growing from seedlings rather than seeds is more preferred by our farmers. So, how to plant lavender? Since lavenders are perennial plants, plants take their place in the field after deep ploughing. The soil leveled with a disc harrow or rake is considered suitable for planting. If seeds are to be planted, careful preparation of the seed bed is recommended. After planting, life water is given, making it easier for lavender to hold onto the soil. Lavender cultivation can be done with 100 x 40 cm, 120 x 50 cm row spacing and row spacing. When the land is desired to be cultivated with a tractor, the distance goes up to 2-3-4 meters. Lavender cultivation is the most common in Turkey; It is held in Isparta, Edirne, Çanakkale and Burdur. State-supported studies continue to increase lavender cultivation in many provinces in the Mediterranean, Marmara, Aegean and Central Anatolian Regions. When to Plant and Harvest Lavender Lavenders are planted in spring in areas that provide suitable soil and climate conditions. If the exact time interval is asked, the average response is the beginning of March or the end of May, and seedlings are planted between these months. It is underlined that mature seedlings can be planted even at the end of summer. The harvest time of lavender varies according to the characteristics of the region where it is grown. Again, based on the Mediterranean Region, lavender reaches the flowering stage in July. Harvest can be done during this period. Gasoline mowers help our farmers in the harvest. Are There Grants and Incentives for Lavender Cultivation? The Communiqué on Supporting Rural Economic Infrastructure Investments within the Scope of Rural Development Supports of the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry (2020/25) published in the Official Gazette numbered 31311 on Saturday, November 21, 2020, clarifies the issue. Medical and aromatic plant breeding investments are evaluated within the scope of grant support. It is known that the lower limit of the grant-based project is 20,000 TL and the upper limit is 500,000 TL. The grant rate is determined as 50% of the amount based on the grant. You can get information about the said medical and aromatic plant breeding investments from the communiqué in the official gazette. What are lavender diseases and pests? Lavender cultivation does not bother the farmers in terms of diseases and pests. From time to time, capped fungi and white root rot problem can be seen on the roots of plants. Diseases such as Septoria lavandulae and Ophiobulus brachyascus can occur on the tops of plants. How to care for lavender plant? After the lavender seedlings are planted, irrigation is done 3-4 times. Barnyard manure is given to lavender fields every 2-3 years. In addition, 8 to 10 kilograms of N and 3-5 kilograms of P2O5 per decare per year are sufficient for maintenance. There is no need for any other maintenance other than hoeing for weed control. After hoeing against weeds in the first 2 years, due to the structure of the plant, weeds do not grow in the field in the following years. Lavender, which does not have any significant pests or diseases, is among the most advantageous crops in terms of cultivation. When to prune lavender? Lavenders are pruned twice a year, once in the spring and once in the late summer, in order to get the best yield during lavender cultivation. Thus, plants that continue to bloom properly do not become lignified.

Grass is an indispensable element of eye-catching garden decorations. In addition, there are benefits in many areas. A well-maintained lawn prevents soil loss by wrapping the garden soil with its roots like a net. It prevents sludge and dust. The development of other plants is also healthier, as it provides the fight against weeds during its care. In addition, the grass that breathes all day cleans the air and provides refreshment in summer days. Soil preparation for grass seed, planting method and time, irrigation, form, fertilization and weed control require a lot of attention and effort at each stage, but it is worth it. With a little effort, even the most amateur gardeners can successfully grow grass in an area of ​​​​close to 20 square meters. In grass planting, the purpose of use, climate, soil, weather and irrigation conditions should be considered to determine the most suitable seed. All kinds of construction work must be completed before planting; stones, roots and weeds should be completely removed. Drainage problem, if any, should be dealt with in advance. Spring is the ideal time for sowing grass. Irrigation should be started immediately after planting, and the top layer of soil should remain moist for at least 2 weeks. During the maintenance of adult lawns, watering should be done twice a day in the morning and evening coolness in the summer season, and regularly every few days in other seasons as needed. On the other hand, excessive watering should be avoided as it will cause the seeds to rot, the nutrients in the soil to drain quickly and the roots to weaken. Fertilization Since it is watered frequently, grass areas lose their organic matter quickly. For a healthy lawn, it is necessary to apply a nutritional supplement program with organomineral or organic grass fertilizers several times a year when the field is dry. For this purpose, Tradite 8.21.0+30SO3+ME or Tradite 11.11.11+11SO3+ME for winter application from various formulations under our Tradite Organomineral Fertilizer brand; Starting from spring, you can choose Tradite Nitrogen 20+(30SO3) or Tradite Nitrogen 30 according to the condition of the grass in the summer months. Ventilation Aeration is necessary for lush and green lawns. Thus, by loosening the soil, free movement of air, fertilizer and roots is ensured and it helps the plant to take minerals. Aeration can be done manually with a lawn aerator or with different piling devices. Format The first form is very important. Grass is mowed every 1-2 weeks depending on the season. It should be noted that in any format the format direction must be changed. Short grass is more affected by sunlight and heat, it is preferable to mow from a height of 6-7 cm to make the grass more resistant to the sun, its length should not be less than 3 cm. Residues while mowing the grass should not be left in the garden as much as possible, as they may cause disease. Fighting weeds Selective herbicides should be used regularly against broad-leaved weeds. Weed pesticides should be applied in windless weather and the area should not be irrigated for at least one day.