Plant Production Basic Concepts

Plants grow, gain resistance to diseases and produce their food; and sometimes chemical elements such as nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, sulfur, iron, manganese, copper, zinc, boron, molybdenum are required for the feeding of grazing animals. Among them, the most important elements are nitrogen, phosphate and potassium, which are the building blocks of plant cells and are mixed with the soil with the decay of plants.

Although these needed elements are present in the soil and air, when crops are grown and harvested regularly on the same piece of land, vitamins and minerals in the soil can become depleted over time. In many cases, organic, chemical or organomineral fertilizers are needed to contain this food, as the soil, water and air may already be poor in elements, or because not all plants have access to the required nutrients. Fertilizers are mixtures of substances used to return depleted nutrients to the soil, improve the nutrient content of the soil, and stimulate plant growth.

As long as the plant receives the nutrients it needs in the amount it needs, it continues to develop. For this reason, it is essential to use the appropriate amount and form of nutrients together with fertilizers, both from the soil and from the leaves when necessary, in order for the plants to mature in a healthy way.

The elements in the soil where the plants are cultivated must be renewed, replaced or the absorption of vitamins must be increased. Fertilization is important to increase the substances that plants can benefit from, to meet the necessary mineral loss with irrigation, to meet the nutrients that are not found in the soil.

Before applying any fertilizer, it should be known that the nutritional component of each soil type is different, as a delicate balance of nutrients is required to keep the soil healthy. In general, you can choose from mineral, organic and special fertilizers. When mineral fertilizers are mentioned, the term NPK fertilizer often comes to the fore; used for nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K). Nitrogen is necessary for the growth of plants, phosphorus is necessary for strong roots and healthy flowers, leaves and fruits. Potassium also supports the plant’s water supply. Organic fertilizers also have a long-term effect. The most common organic fertilizers are compost and horn dust or bone meal.

If possible, taking into account the complexity of soil health, you can have your soil and plant leaf analyzed and choose the fertilizer type and formula suitable for your plant’s needs in this way.


Purpose in agricultural production; to obtain the highest possible yield and the best quality product. The most effective factor to achieve this goal; It fertilizes BALANCED and REGULARLY. This

is only possible with SOIL ANALYSIS. With soil analysis, the deficiencies of nutrients that will enable the growth and development of the plant in the soil to be produced are determined. According to the results of the analysis, it is determined how much, when and how to give which fertilizer. According to the results of the analysis, the use of fertilizer is the most economical way for the farmer. Fertilization without analysis will harm the soil, the environment, the economy and the farmer’s budget.

 Disadvantages of Fertilizing Without Soil Analysis:

  1.  Less fertilizer can be used than needed. In this case, the plant cannot be fed well, and the economic value of the product to be obtained will be low.
  2.  More fertilizer than necessary can be used. As the input cost increases, excess fertilizer can have a negative effect on the soil and the crop.
  3.  Wrong type of fertilizer can be used. As a result, the product may shrink, lie or dry out. At least there will be no increase in the amount of product.
  4.  Fertilizer can be used at the wrong time and in the wrong way. The expected benefit from fertilizer is not provided.


Since 2005, support has been given for the lands of our farmers registered in Direct Income Support, on which soil analysis has been made. Our farmers can declare in which parcels and how much land they have had soil analysis done. Our farmers must apply to the relevant Provincial and District Directorate of Agriculture by having the application form approved by the laboratory where they have the analysis done for the lands they have soil analysis done. Up to 60 decares of support is paid for each soil analysis. In order to benefit from the payment, applications are made together with the Direct Income Support application.


Soil samples must be taken duly in order for the results of soil analysis to provide the expected benefits and to avoid the mistakes we have explained above. If the soil sample is not taken properly, it will cause loss of labor, money and time. The soil sample should be well representative of the field or garden. Soil samples are not taken randomly from all over the field.

  • – Threshing floor or places where animals sleep,
  • – Places where manure has already been piled up,
  • – Places where stalks, roots or weeds are burned in bulk,
  • – Places where animal manure is found,
  • – The bumps or pits of the field where there is water accumulation,
  • – Streams, forests, streams and parts of land close to roads,
  • – On the row in the crops planted in the row,
  • – Areas close to buildings,
  • – Road sides, Old fence places,
  • – Under the trees (for arable farming areas)

Samples are not taken at these points as they do not represent the land. A separate mixture should be made in areas with extreme variation within the field.


Soil samples should be taken about 1-2 months before sowing or planting in greenhouse cultivation and annual plant cultivation, and about 1-2 months before the fertilization time for mature fruit trees. with frost

Soil samples are not taken on days and from muddy land. The soil of the place where the sample will be taken should be dry or annealed enough not to stick to the foot. Depth varies according to the depth of cultivation or cultivation of the soil. In terms of fertilizers, we are more concerned with the cultivated soil layer, as the crops get their nutrients from this part. Because most of the plants in field agriculture take the nutrients in this layer. For the purpose of fertilization, samples should be taken from 0-20 cm depth of the soil in general. If samples are to be taken for tree planting and similar purposes, samples should be taken from 0-20 and 30-60 cm. Mixed soil samples should be taken from 0-20, 20-40, 40-60 cm depths from vineyards and orchards. This depth may vary according to the age and type of tree. Sample will be taken

The field should not be larger than 20 acres. If it is large, separate samples should be taken for each 20 decares.


Various tools are used to take samples; earth auger, earth probe and shovel are among these tools. If the soil is not very wet or dry, with a probe; with auger if the soil is dry; If both these tools are not available, a soil sample can be taken with a garden shovel or bell. The materials used must be stainless. Soil probe and auger provide great convenience in taking samples in lower layers such as 40-60 cm. For annual plants; During the collection of soil samples, sampling should be done by walking around in zigzags in accordance with the shape of the land so that the sample fully reflects the characteristics of the soil area it represents. If the soil properties are the same, the samples taken from 8-10 or more places from the required depths should be mixed and turned into a mixed sample, as a sample up to 40 decares for field agriculture and 20 decares for horticultural crops. Lands with different soil properties (places with different colors in the same field, places with different soil depths, places with a large amount of crop removal, and places where different soil cultivation and irrigation are performed) should be sampled separately, even if it is 20 decares. To take soil samples for fertilization in annual plants; you need a shovel, a container (bucket, a large nylon) for mixing the soil samples taken, and a clean nylon or soil sample cloth bag. Before using these materials, the shovel should be thoroughly cleaned and there should be no other residues on it. The nylon or cloth bag that we will put the soil samples in and send to the laboratory for analysis should be large enough to hold 1 kg of soil.


We go to the beginning of the field by taking the tools and materials prepared for taking soil samples. Progress is made by entering from one end of the field and taking samples to the other end. However, these samples should be taken from one end of the field to the other, not in a straight line, but by making zig-zags. In other words, we should be careful to take samples from all parts of the area where we will plant. The place where the soil sample will be taken should be divided into sections according to color, slope, height, soil type and drainage status, and a sample of up to 20 decares should be taken from each section.

It should be checked whether this place is a suitable place to take soil samples. If this place is suitable for sampling, things such as grass and straw on the soil are cleaned by hand. As above, a hole in the shape of the letter V and 30 cm deep is dug. Then, as seen in the figure, a slice of soil approximately 3-4 cm thick is taken from the smooth side of the pit, and it is brought into a square shape by shaving it from the right, left and the tip of the shovel. Care should be taken not to shave the part that represents the top of the field, and 10-15 samples to be taken in this way should be mixed on a cloth or in a bucket. Here, all the soil samples that we take from the field and put on top of each other in the bucket are thoroughly mixed (mixed). Then, 1 kg of soil sample is placed in a nylon or cloth bag that we take with us from the soil that is thoroughly mixed in the bucket. The number of places to be sampled should be at least 6 on a 20 decare land. The sample taken is labeled and delivered to the laboratory to be analyzed as soon as possible. While sampling from orchards, samples should be taken from 4-8 points according to tree size over the tree crown projection. In the fertilization of vineyards and orchards; Mixed soil samples should be taken from 0-20cm, 20-40cm, 40-60cm depths. Taking soil samples for fertilization from perennial plants is the same as for annual plants. Their difference from annual plants is that they should be sampled not only from 20 cm depth of the soil (plow plow depth) but also from the depth of the soil. In perennial plants, samples are usually taken from 0-20, 20-40, 40-60 cm depth, but if necessary, soil samples are taken from 60-90 or 90-120 cm depths. Of course, the shovel is not enough to take soil samples from these depths. These samples can be taken with various types of augers or by digging a pit (length pit) in the field up to these depths and samples can be taken from a smooth edge of this pit.


Taking soil samples for fertilization is the basis of fertilization. For this you need to be careful. Especially in practice, important errors are encountered. Some of the most common mistakes are:

– Soil samples are not taken from a depth of up to 20 cm with a shovel, but from the surface of the soil and most of the time by hand.

– 100-150 gr samples are taken instead of approximately 1 kg, so the soil sent is not sufficient for analysis in the laboratory.

– Soil samples are placed in unsuitable containers, such as cans or fertilizer bags.

– Labels are written with a ballpoint pen, not a pencil, and when it is put on nylon and its mouth is closed, the writings on the labels become unreadable when the ink gets smeared because the soil sweats.

– After the soil is placed in the nylon bag, the labels are not punctured in a few places, and the labels placed inside are destroyed by getting wet in the nylon bag due to the moisture of the soil.

– When the farmer has more than one field in the same location, after the soil samples are taken, the label does not indicate which soil belongs to which field, and thus the fields are mixed by the farmer when the soils sent to the laboratory are analyzed and a report is sent.

– Drying the wet sample on the stove If the sample is slightly wet, it should be dried in the shade.


If the soil sample will not be sent to the laboratory immediately after it is taken, the soil should be dried in a suitable environment, at room temperature, on clean nylon or paper in a dust-free manner. Thus, the soil is analyzed without waiting for the drying time of the moist soil in the laboratory and the result report is issued early. If the soil sample taken is wet, it should not be dried on the stove or heater.

Information sheets filled with pencils are placed in the bags for the soil samples representing each field or part from which the mixed soil sample was taken. In addition, the same information sheet (label) is attached to the mouth of the sample bag. The label to be placed in the bag should bear the following information;

Province :

Town :

Village :

Position :

Name and surname :

Crop planted last year:

Amount of product purchased last year:

Location of the land:

Crop to be planted this year:

Whether the land is irrigated:

Size of the Field Decare:

Depth taken:

Sampling Date :

Address :

Fertilizers produced by combining and blending organic (compost) and chemical raw materials with 15-20% organic matter are called organomineral fertilizers. Organic compounds, which are considered as the soil’s immune system, help to improve the physical, chemical and biological properties of the soil, as well as the fertilizer use of applied chemical fertilizers. They are new generation fertilizers obtained by collecting the benefits of chemical minerals and soil healing properties that serve to increase the efficiency of the soil in a single fertilizer. Organomineral fertilizer is a type of fertilizer obtained by dosing with a very rich variety of mineral fertilizers and organic matter in its content. In organomineral fertilizers; It is an environmentally friendly fertilizer combination in which the needs of the plant are optimized by incorporating micro elements such as iron, zinc, manganese, copper as well as the main plant nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, sulfur, calcium, magnesium. With this fertilizer combination, it contains amino acids, organic acids and enzymes that help plants to provide all the nutrients they need, to take these nutrients, to regulate the metabolism of plants, to become resistant to stress conditions and diseases. It is important to have a soil analysis before using organomineral fertilizers. The most suitable combination for the needs of the soil and the plant should be selected among the organomineral fertilizer types suitable for the results of the analysis. Organomineral fertilizers are prepared as a base fertilizer used in the period when the plant is planted, as well as in the balanced feeding phases where the quality parameters are increased or exceeded after planting in the period of plant growth and yield transformation. can be used in different combinations.

Why Use Organomineral Fertilizer?

In the absence of organic matter, only 50% of nitrogen, 15-30% of phosphorus and 40% of potassium can be taken up by plants. On the other hand, the plant nutrients that cannot be taken cause barrenness by binding to the soil, mixing with the groundwaters, causing the pollution of the groundwater and wasting resources. In the soils rich in organic matter, almost all of the plant nutrients given can be used by the plants. This means prevention of soil barrenness, protection of groundwater and effective use of resources. However, in order to increase the organic matter of 23 million hectares of agricultural land in Turkey from 1% to 4%, 1.38 billion tons of organic matter supplementation is needed. It is not possible to apply this amount of organic matter in terms of supply, logistics and cost. Therefore, giving organic matter together with plant nutrients to the root zone of plants without increasing the organic matter of all soils, that is, using organomineral fertilizers, will mean meeting this need in a much more economical and effective way. 90% of the cultivated areas are soils that are poor in organic matter.

Organomineral fertilizers; While it increases the soil quality in the plant root zone, the root, stem and leaf development of the plants becomes healthier. Since organomineral fertilizers increase the aeration of the soil, plant roots develop healthy. Since 99% of the fertilizers used in our country are foreign-dependent, it helps to reduce foreign dependency by serving the effective use of local and national resources. It helps to eliminate the quality problems due to their accumulation in plants, as well as soil-water pollution due to the intensive use of chemical fertilizers in agricultural areas due to their low uptake efficiency. Due to the instability of plants that cannot be fed in a balanced way to biotic and abiotic stress conditions, there is a need for adequate use. It helps to reduce the use of pesticides and to grow plants that are more resistant to stress conditions.

Compost is the most ideal organic material source in terms of organomineral fertilizer applications in terms of 75% organic matter, 25% high humic-fulvic acid content, rapid solubility, richness in trace element and sustainability.

Compost-derived organomineral fertilizers contain both the plant nutrients found in chemical fertilizers and the organic matter needed for plants to use it. Thus, almost all of the plant nutrients are taken up by the plants.


Nitrogen is the basic building block of all living things. It is the basic component of plant genes, enzymes and chlorophyll. 16% of the protein’s structure is nitrogen. Since there is no nitrogen in the material forming the soil, and the nitrogen that has passed from the atmosphere to the soil is not well stored in the soil, the nitrogen content of the soils is quite low. The main ingredient of nitrogen in the soil is organic matter. Nitrogen, which is dependent on organic matter, is not available to plants immediately. Especially the soils of our country, which has very low organic matter content, are very poor in nitrogen. Therefore, nitrogen fertilization is constantly needed. It is present in 78% of the air we breathe. Nitrogen in the atmosphere is in elemental form (N), and only plants belonging to the legume family can benefit from nitrogen in the air through the rhizobium bacteria with which they live in symbiosis in their roots. All other plants can use nitrogen in ammonium (NH4+) and nitrate (NO3-) forms. In nitrogen deficiency, the growth rate of plants decreases. The shoot length and leaves become smaller. Old leaves turn yellow, while other leaves are light green. There is a general yellowing (chlorosis) especially when looking at the field. Plants bloom early, age early. Leaf and stem system becomes very weak.


The primary source of phosphorus in the soil is phosphate rock and minerals. In addition, since there is phosphorus in the structure of organic matter, there are also organic phosphorus compounds in the soil. In order for plants to benefit from phosphorus in both inorganic and organic phosphorus compounds, they must be decomposed into phosphate anions. It is difficult for phosphate anions to remain free in many soils. Even a large part of the phosphorus given with fertilizers can turn into forms that plants cannot benefit from. It is difficult for plants to benefit from phosphorus, especially in calcareous and high pH soils.

Phosphorus is more abundant in the generative (flower, fruit and seed) organs of the plant than in other organs. For this reason, generative organs such as flowers, fruits and seeds are most damaged by phosphorus deficiency. Growth regresses in plants with phosphorus deficiency. Heading in grains is adversely affected. The formation of shoots and buds in fruit trees is reduced. Seed and fruit quality deteriorates, ripening is delayed. In citrus and other fruit trees, fruit drop is seen before maturation.

Flowering in vegetables decreases, fruits remain small, poor quality. In phosphorus deficiency, the leaves are usually darker green than normal. Phosphorus deficiency causes red, reddish purple color on the leaves and stems of many annual plants.


After nitrogen, the nutrient taken by plants in the most amount is potassium. Although the total potassium content of the soils is usually higher than the amount that the plants receive during a growing season, usually a very small amount of this total potassium is useful to the plants. Potassium is a nutrient that affects many quality elements in plants. Potassium deficiency, especially in potassium vegetables, fruits, tobacco and fiber plants, affects the quality characteristics very negatively. Plants need potassium for the growth of roots and shoot tips. In the absence of potassium in the plant, the tissues become loose, thus increasing the risk of catching diseases and pests. In the absence of potassium, the water balance in the plants is disturbed and the field looks like it is dehydrated. Potassium deficiency symptoms first appear on the leaf margins and tips of many plants. The leaf margins first turn yellow, then turn brown. Fruit trees have the same symptoms and the rest of the leaf stays green for a long time. Potassium deficiency occurs in grains because the stems are not strong enough.



Sulfur is found in soils in organic and inorganic forms. However, in many soils, most of the sulfur reserves are organic sulfur. There is a constant exchange of sulfur between the soil and the atmosphere. The sources of sulfur in the soil are generally chemical and organic fertilizers. The amount of sulfur, which is one of the nutrients required for plant growth, is almost as much as phosphorus. Plants absorb sulfur mostly in the form of SO4 -2. Symptoms of sulfur deficiency begin to appear on young leaves first. The symptoms seen in sulfur deficiency in plants are somewhat similar to the deficiency symptoms seen in nitrogen deficiency. In sulfur deficiency, a general yellowing is seen on the leaves of the plants. Cell walls and fibers are thick in plants with sulfur deficiency.


Calcium is one of the most important nutrients for plants and animals. Calcium, which forms a very important part of the earth’s crust, is the most abundant element after potassium in plants. Calcium is more abundant in old leaves than in young leaves, unlike phosphorus and potassium. Calcium plays an important role in cell division and increasing seed germination rate. Calcium affects root elongation and cell division in plants. In the absence of this element, the cessation of cell division negatively affects root elongation. Calcium is also effective on root secretion in plants, and it also protects plant tissues against freeze-thaw stress. Since calcium is an immobile element in the plant, it first shows its deficiency in the young leaves of the plant. The leaves at the tip of the shoot are hooked, the young leaves that turn yellow at the beginning of the deficiency, turn black in the advanced stages and take the shape of a bowl or bowl. As a result of calcium deficiency, spots and rot are seen on the fruits.


Magnesium is an essential nutrient for plants and animals. Although it is generally less than calcium in soils, it can be said that there is usually enough magnesium in the soils of normal and arid regions. Magnesium is found in the composition of chlorophyll in the plant. Since the chlorophyll molecule forms the building material, photosynthesis will not occur if there is not enough magnesium. In addition, magnesium is needed for most enzymes and enzyme reactions. Magnesium deficiency first manifests itself in old leaves, while the leaf veins remain green, the leaf veins become yellow. In further stages, the petiole becomes thinner and leaves fall off.


There is more iron in the soil than other mineral elements. However, a large part of this amount is in a form that plants cannot use, and in some cases, plants may show signs of iron deficiency. Soil pH, the amount of bicarbonate ions in the soil solution and soil water affect the availability of iron in the soil. Although soluble iron is found in excess in acid-reactive soils, the solubility of iron decreases in neutral and basic soil reactions. plays a role in its existence. It activates many biochemical reactions with important physiological functions in plants. It is observed that the amount of protein in the plants decreases if the iron, which is effective on protein synthesis, is not enough in the environment. Newly formed leaves usually remain small, fruit set decreases and fruits do not reach their normal color.



The total amount of zinc differs from soil to soil, depending on the parent material (rocks) from which soils are formed. The amount of zinc in the soil is generally very low, varying between 0.0005% and 0.01%. More than 90% of the zinc in the soil is insoluble in the structure of minerals. As the pH of the soil increases, the availability of zinc decreases. In addition, there is a close relationship between the phosphorus content of the soil and the zinc availability. Zinc deficiency symptoms can be seen in soils rich in phosphorus and in soils with excessive use of phosphorus fertilizers. Zinc plays a role in DNA and RNA metabolism, cell division and protein synthesis. In short, it is necessary for the regular occurrence of metabolic activity and plays a very important role in plant development. Zinc deficiency symptoms first appear on the young leaves of the plant. Leaves stop growing, leaf surfaces shrink and leaves fall off. The leaf margins sometimes take on a wavy appearance, a mosaic-like spotting occurs between the veins, with the veins remaining green on the leaf surface. Shoot development in fruit trees completely stops and the number of buds on shoots decreases.



After it was understood that boron is an essential nutrient for plants, it was understood that many plant diseases were actually caused by boron deficiency.

In places with heavy boron precipitation, it can be easily washed away from the environment. The usefulness of boron decreases in calcareous and clay-rich soils and as the pH rises.

Boron has important functions in the transport of sugars in plants, the formation of cell wall structure in cell wall synthesis, carbohydrate, RNA metabolism and respiration. The symptoms of boron deficiency first appear in young leaves as chlorosis and yellow-red coloration. Since the growth points are damaged, the growth in plants is very slow. Reduction in bud, flower and seed formation, cavities, rot, glassy appearance and brown spots occur in the inner parts of the fruits.



Copper is used in very small amounts by plants. The low use of copper by plants does not mean that it is a less important element than other elements. In practice, copper deficiency in plants is not very common in our country. Among the factors affecting the usefulness of copper in soils, the organic matter content of the soil, the pH of the soil, and the presence of metallic ions such as iron, manganese and aluminum in the soil are important. deficiency is seen in plants grown on low copper content, coarse textured and calcareous soils. Deficiency symptoms first appear on young leaves due to poor mobility within the plant. The leaf margins are yellow and the leaf becomes pale green in color. In copper deficiency, flower and fruit formation are adversely affected.



There is a close relationship between manganese compounds in the soil and soil pH. Due to the solubility of manganese compounds in acidic soils, manganese availability is quite high. In contrast, manganese availability is low in soils with high pH. With a unit increase in pH, the amount of dissolved manganese (Mn+2) ion decreases 100 times. For this reason, manganese deficiency is common in plants grown in soils with high pH. Vegetables most susceptible to manganese deficiency are beans, onions, peas, cucumbers, tomatoes; the least susceptible vegetable is leek, while other vegetables are moderately susceptible. Of the field crops and fruits, those that are particularly sensitive to manganese deficiency are oats, sugar beets, potatoes, cotton, peanuts, apples, cherries and citrus fruits. Chloroplast formation is impaired in manganese deficiency in the plant. In plants, cells become smaller and the cell wall becomes dominant. Manganese helps the formation of chlorophyll in the plant with the help of iron. Manganese deficiency symptoms in plants are primarily seen in young leaves. Yellowing is seen between the veins on the leaves and the leaf margins are yellow, drying occurs from the leaf tips, and spots are formed on the young leaves.



There are differences among cultivated plants in terms of molybdenum needs. Despite this, molybdenum is the least found in soil among the nutrients required for plants. Although the plant needs are different and it is found in the lowest amount in the soil, molybdenum deficiency is not a very common situation. Apart from these, lettuce, spinach, tomatoes and citrus fruits are plants that are highly sensitive to molybdenum. Molybdenum is mobile in the plant and therefore deficiency symptoms first appear on old leaves, and yellowish spots appear between the veins on the lower leaves. The difference between molybdenum and nitrogen deficiency symptoms is rapid necrosis on the leaf margins. Symptoms of yellowing occur with the expansion of the yellowing towards the leaf margins, the curling of the leaves and the reduction of leaf blade width, and the formation of different shaped leaves.


According to the regulation of the European Parliament in Brussels (27 April 2018), high animal welfare and production standards are required in line with the ever-increasing consumer demand for products produced with organic farming, climate and environment-friendly practices, and high biodiversity levels, protecting natural resources, and produced with natural substances and methods. It is defined as a comprehensive agricultural management and food production system that takes care of its implementation.

Organic farming producers tend to limit all inputs and use environmentally friendly farming techniques in their daily routine. For example, when it comes to soil management, organic farmers practice crop rotation primarily to preserve the soil’s nutritional values. Often, they use organic fertilizers and nitrogen-fixing bacteria in quantities specified in the organic farming law.

When it comes to weed control, organic farming producers prefer techniques such as mulching, manual weeding and tillage. Often, they remove weeds using equipment specifically designed for organic farming. Organic farm producers try to limit the use of synthetic chemicals as much as possible. Therefore, they prefer to take precautions in crop protection techniques by applying techniques such as pest traps and natural predators.

How To Get Organic Farming Certificate/Certificate?

In each country, organic farming is defined by special laws and commercial use of the term ‘organic’ is subject to government control. There are certain steps that every farmer must follow (and avoid) in order to become certified as an organic producer. Even a light illegal practice can lead to the end of organic farming.

If you want to be a certified organic agriculture producer, you can apply to the organizations that issue the authorized organic agriculture certificate in your region. If you comply with organic farming standards, the authorities will approve your certificate after a certain period of time (for example, 3-4 years in fruit tree cultivation). Those who practice organic farming rules then market their products as “Certified Organic Product” and the official organic seal is placed on their packaging, which often helps to market the products at a higher price.

Organic Farming Principles

According to IFOAM (International Federation of Organic Farming Movements), Organic Farming Principles are:

  •  Organic agriculture should maintain and improve soil, plant, animal and human health as a whole.
  • Organic farming, based on the ecological system and transformation, should imitate these and help maintain their sustainability.
  •  Organic farming should be based on relationships that ensure justice in the environment and life processes.
  • Organic farming should be managed prudently and responsibly to protect the health and well-being of current and future generations and the environment.

The Aims Of Organic Farming Are:

  • Production of safe and healthy food, free from pesticide residues.
  • General protection of the environment through sustainable management (protecting soil, water and biodiversity).
  •  Sustainable use of energy and natural resources (such as water, soil, organic matter).
  • Maintaining and improving soil fertility and biological activity.
  • To protect farmers from harmful chemicals.
  • To ensure animal health and welfare.
  • Rules and laws regarding production methods and controls of organic products are subject to country laws and may vary from country to country.Despite this, some basic organic farming practices and methods are:

 Examples Of Organic Farming Practices & Methods Are:

  • – Crop rotation (avoiding monoculture farming, which causes gradual soil weakening).
  • Using green manure.
  •  Using animal manure and vegetable waste (compost).
  •  Recycling of organic materials.
  • Using alternative plant protection (natural predators) and nutritional products.
  •  Using local plant varieties and local animal breeds that are resistant to the special conditions of the region.
  •  Ensuring high standards of animal welfare.
  •  Avoiding the use of Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) and products produced by or with GMOs.

General Philosophy Of Organic Farming

As a general philosophy, the potential organic farm producer must fully understand the concept of a closed natural ecosystem (minimum input and output) and use all the healthy components available in the ecosystem. This means that the organic farm has very little inputs and outputs, and is treated as a separate ecosystem where most elements are recycled and sustainable. For example, let’s say we manage an organic olive farm. Instead of pulling or burning the cut branches after pruning (as in traditional farming), what we do in organic farming is crush them with special machines and sprinkle the sawdust in the olive orchard. This process has beneficial effects because it has been calculated that for every 1000 kg of branches with 50% moisture added to the soil, 4 kg of nitrogen, 0.5 kg of phosphorus, 4 kg of potassium, 5 kg of calcium and 1 kg of magnesium are added to the soil (Amirante. Et al., 2002). ). In this way, the use and requirement of most chemical fertilizers, which are not allowed for use in organic farming, are reduced. That is, we tend to encourage the recycling of materials that have the lowest possible inputs and outputs and are found in the olive land. Of course, cut branches need to be removed and removed from an organic olive grove immediately in case of disease or pests.

Understanding And Preventing Environmental Pollution İn Organic Farmland

Some practices applied around organic farmland may cause soiling of the land. For example, if conventional agriculture is practiced on the neighboring land, spraying on a windy day may cause contamination of the organic farmland. However, the method of spraying is not the only factor that can cause pollution of organic farmland. Even during pruning or harvesting, the use of machinery (eg machine oil leakage) increases the risk of contaminating the soil or water supply. Organic farming producers need to carefully assess the risks that may cause land contamination and take appropriate measures.

To avoid the risk of pesticide contamination from neighboring land, farmers use, for example, natural hedge plants. Such plants help the farmer create a protected area environment and reduce the risk of pesticides polluting the land by wind. In addition, it can divert rainwater flowing from the outside into the land and prevent pesticides from polluting the land with rainwater.

GMOs are also one of the factors that cause contamination in organic farming. It is very important to examine the crop history of the lands where organic farming will be applied. These lands must have a non-GMO crop history. In addition, organic farmers can use untreated seeds. In addition, seeds must be procured from a trader who is not engaged in the use of genetically modified material. Finally, vehicles used in organic farming, including vehicles used in transportation and storage facilities, should not be used by farmers practicing conventional agriculture, otherwise we increase the risk of contamination. However, these are just some common practices and are not recommended unless you do your own research. For detailed information, you can consult local and authorized organizations that issue organic agriculture certificates.

Fertilization Techniques in Organic Farming

Many chemical fertilizers (for example, mineral nitrogen fertilizers) are not allowed for use in organic farming. The only types of fertilizers allowed are those approved for use in organic farming.

However, soil fertility is vital to the growth of plants. Mostly nitrogen, but also phosphorus and potassium are essential elements that are important in the development stages of the plant. Some of the most suitable organic fertilizers are:

Green Manure

Green manure application begins with planting annual or perennial plants (clover, vetch) in the field. This method improves soil fertility and soil structure. It increases the water absorption power of the soil and the moisture rate of the soil. This method is also applied in weed control. Mostly plants that live with nitrogen-fixing bacteria, such as alfalfa, broad bean, lentil, lupine, pea, chickpea, are used. Cereals such as oats and barley are also used. Because these plants (especially legumes) absorb a significant amount of nutrients, they increase the amount of nutrients available to the parent plants when they are buried in the soil. If the producer decides to apply this technique, he must use reproductive material (seed) that does not belong to the category of Genetically Modified Organisms.


Composting is a natural process in which certain microorganisms, such as bacteria, convert organic matter into humus. After this process is completed, compost is produced. Compost consists of a mixture of organic matter, nutrients and trace elements. It is a natural fertilization method that gives excellent soil strengthening results. However, you should consult your local agronomist before applying.

Animal Manure

Another fertilization technique applied in organic agriculture is the use of animal fertilization. Animal manure produced in organic farms is widely used. Well-burned animal manure should be used and this manure can be sprinkled around the plants. However, it is recommended to consult your local licensed agronomist before applying fertiliser. Some farmers cover the soil surface with dead plant material to increase soil fertility and also as weed control. This method is known as mulching.

Soilless farming is not normally compliant with organic farming standards. Hydroponic farming is a farming method in which producers do not use soil to grow plants. Therefore, the roots of the plants are in the special nutrient solution and this is how the plants develop. According to the laws of most countries, organic agricultural products must be grown in the soil. However, in the United States, some hydroponic crops have recently been approved as organic farming products.

Plant Protection and Weed Control in Organic Agriculture

In organic farming, the use of pesticides such as chemical agricultural pesticides, fungicides, herbicides is not allowed. Environmentally friendly approaches can prevent pest and disease outbreaks.

The basis for preventing damage from pests, diseases or weeds depends on:

  1.  Using a natural predator (eg ladybug).
  2. Selecting resistant species and cultivars.
  3. Crop rotation.
  4. To apply appropriate cultivation techniques such as appropriate pruning in tree cultivation.
  5. Planting the main crop and certain plants (eg vetch). Some plants (such as vetch and some Trifolium species) are notorious for naturally inhibiting the growth of weeds.

Additionally, farmers can choose planting times that prevent pests and improve soil health. Disease-free seeds and agricultural materials are also required. In general, organic farmers are advised to choose local seeds or varieties that perform well in local conditions.

Conclusion: Organic farming or conventional farming?

Choosing between organic or conventional farming is not easy, both environmentally and economically. Some farmers prefer organic farming because it fits their personal philosophy of producing and using natural products. Undoubtedly, before switching to organic agriculture, most producers made this choice by calculating the income and expense of this type of agriculture. It should also be taken into account that some organic agricultural products cannot be competitive enough in the market due to the high production cost. It may also be because the organic farmland is not large enough or the producer does not have the experience of reducing the total cost of production and offering the consumer a medium quality product at an attractive price. For this reason, many farmers choose to switch to organic agriculture, aiming to produce quality products. Thus, they produce few but high quality products and hence market their products at a high price. While some manufacturers succeed in this, some cannot. In any case, being successful in organic farming requires extensive research, specific practice, training, assistance and some experience.

Among the fertilization types used for the healthy and rapid development of crops, base fertilizer has an important place. Soil fertilizers, which are given from the soles of the crops and make them more resistant to diseases coming from the soil, also play an active role in the root development of the crops. Base fertilizer is not actually a single type of fertilizer, fertilizers with different contents can be selected as base fertilizer. Fertilizer gets its name not from the product content, but from the application method, namely the process itself. For this reason, it seems more functional to explain the base fertilization process while making base fertilizer explanations.

Roots and leaves, which are the main nutrients of crops, are targets for fertilization. While the base fertilizer is the vehicle for the nutrients reaching the roots from the soil, the leaf fertilizer refers to the fertilization made through the leaves.

What is Soil Fertilizer and What Does It Do?

Fertilizing from the base can be done before planting or before the buds on the fruit trees wake up. Thanks to the process, nutrients that penetrate the soil and roots easily, accelerate development and provide yield. The first fertilizers, which contain the nutrients that may be needed before planting and during the budding period, are called base fertilizers.

Base fertilizers contain phosphorus, one of the main components needed by plants. Among the basic items that crops need are; phosphorus, nitrogen and potassium. While nitrogen is necessary for the growth of plants, phosphorus contributes to the strengthening of roots and the development of leaves, fruits and flowers. Potassium, on the other hand, determines both the fruit quality and the use of water by the plant.

These components are often not found in sufficient quantities in soils. Especially in soils where no rotation is applied, the same crop is constantly planted, and fertilization support is not provided, the deficiency can be seen quite a lot. A decrease in components can be observed not only due to agricultural errors, but also due to natural conditions. For example, water seeping into the soil can cause excessive washing of the soil and a decrease in minerals. It becomes much more difficult to get good crops as the crops cannot be fed in poor soils. With the support of base fertilizer and components, the yield capacity of the soil is increased and the quality of the crops, yield, seedlings, fruit and flower probability are increased. It is of great importance that fertilization is done at the right time and in the right way in order to provide the expected benefit.

How to Use Soil Fertilizer?

  •  The amount of base fertilizers is calculated over decares. When choosing base fertilizer, you can calculate how many kilograms of fertilizer will be given per decare.
  • When you apply base fertilizer in seed planting or planting seedlings, the fertilizers should be 8-10 cm deep. Fertilization can also be done 5-6 cm to the side of seeds and seedlings.
  •  When applying base fertilizer to fruit trees, the crown projection is taken into account. The base fertilizer is applied to the crown projection.
  •  Soil analysis must be done before the base fertilizer is applied. Otherwise, fertilizers given in excess can cause both environmental pollution and damage to the crop.

When and How to Throw Soil Fertilizer?

Base fertilization can be done just before planting or planting, or it can be done during planting/planting. Soil manure can be applied by hand or with a seeder. Base fertilization can be done by sprinkling, by giving it to the band or stove in lines.

  • Spreading fertilization: In fertilizing by spreading, the fertilizer is first sprinkled on the soil and then buried with tools. After the process is completed and the soil is prepared, planting begins. Fertilizer is applied by burying the seed deep.
  • Band-type fertilization: Band-type fertilization, which is usually done with a seeder and sometimes using a plow and hoe, provides a lot of benefits to the crops. Thanks to the fertilizers given to the tape, the roots are easily fed and developed. In particular, phosphorus-containing fertilizers mix into the soil from the belt in a short time and provide benefits for a longer period of time. While the phosphorus given by sprinkling becomes inefficient by mixing with the lime, this problem disappears in the band method and the yield increases by 10-15% on average.

While choosing which base fertilizer type to use, the results of the soil analysis, the needs of the crop to be planted, and the seasonal conditions are taken into consideration. For example, if a harsh winter is coming, base fertilizers with microelements that will make the crops resistant to cold may be more popular. Similarly, if potassium is sufficient but phosphorus and nitrogen are deficient in the soil, fertilizers containing two main components are preferred for the first fertilization. In addition, the choice of fertilizer changes when the soil is permeable and light-textured. Since there will be an intense need for sulfur in addition to the main components in these soils, base fertilizers containing higher levels of sulfur can be beneficial. Base fertilization in tea farming requires a special application. Although the base fertilizer must be applied by mixing it with the soil, it may be preferable not to mix some base fertilizers because tea farming is usually done on sloping lands and the regions are very rainy. Special nitrogen-containing tea fertilizers, which are specially developed so that the nutrients do not wash out of the soil and reach the deep roots, can also be counted among the base fertilizer types.

Depending on the needs of the soil and crop, farm manure and humic acid can be given together with base manure. In addition, needed minerals such as boron can be applied during base fertilization.

How much fertilizer is used?

How much of the base fertilizer will be used depends on the composition of the soil and the needs of the crop. The required amount is calculated over hectare. Our farmers can determine the amount of use in kg by selecting the base fertilizer they need according to their crops, regional weather conditions and soil analysis results.

What are the benefits of base fertilizer?

Taban gübresi, ekim öncesinde veya sırasında uygulanan ilk gübre olarak biliniyor. Toprağa karıştırılarak veya bant usulü ile verilen bileşenler, tohumun, fidenin, meyvenin kalitesini, verimini, ekini dayanıklılığını artırmaya yönelik etki vadediyor. Taban gübresi desteği ile ekinlerin zararlılara ve hava şartlarına karşı daha sağlam hale gelebildiği biliniyor.

 In which crops is the base fertilizer used?

Many crops can be supported using base fertilizer. Base fertilizer is needed in many agricultural activities that you can think of, from wheat to barley, corn to rice, sunflower, potato, sugar beet and fruit trees.

Drip irrigation is among the irrigation techniques that our farmers often resort to while growing their crops. You can get information from our article if you are wondering why our farmers, who work diligently to ensure that the crops grow healthily, by taking the most appropriate amount of water, and why they prefer drip irrigation, what are the features and advantages of this technique.

What is Drip Irrigation System?

Drip irrigation takes its name from its technical features. The system in which water is given directly, in droplets, to the root part is called by this name. Drip irrigation relies on frequent and little watering. The water pressure is kept low in the type of irrigation used on both fertilized and unfertilized soils. Irrigation with the drip technique, which was used in greenhouses before, is also preferred in the open field today. Those who ask what is the drip irrigation system wonder what kind of infrastructure the technique is used for. Human labor, energy, pressure and water are used to a minimum in the irrigation process, which is carried out with the help of sections such as a dispenser dropper, water tank, shorter drip irrigation system pipe, and irrigation water filters.

What are the Advantages of Drip Irrigation System?

The advantages of the drip irrigation system are quite high when compared to the disadvantages. The most important advantages of drip irrigation, which more and more farmers use on our lands, are:

  1. The timed drip irrigation system allows irrigation at any time of the day. Thanks to the system that is not dependent on wind speed, our farmers gain great convenience.
  2. Thanks to less water, growth is achieved without causing stress in the crop.
  3. Energy saving thanks to low pressure usage.
  4. In our lands where drip irrigation is used, the crops mature 2-3 weeks earlier on average.
  5. Drip irrigation reduces the labor requirement. As the labor requirement is greatly reduced, the farmer’s expenses are reduced.
  6. As water loss is minimized by evaporation, up to 50% reduction in water usage is recorded.
  7. When fertilizing and spraying together with irrigation, higher efficiency is obtained from active substances. About 60% is saved in the use of fertilizers and pesticides.

– The lands are taking off.

– Since the entire area is not irrigated, the possibility of weed growth in the environment decreases. The need for hoeing is reduced.

– The system, which prevents erosion and soil loss, provides benefits for the ecosystem. There is less soil hardening.

– Large areas can be irrigated with low flow water. It offers the advantage of being easy to install and remove.

– Crop quality improves, usable soil water is used better.

– Crop growth occurs regularly thanks to short-interval irrigation.

– Even water with high salt content can be used for irrigation.

– Water and fertilizer distribution can be made evenly. One-handed harvesting is increasing.

– The plant does not have to take root too much to reach the water. The food feeds the crop itself, not the root.

– It becomes easier to customize irrigation according to crop, climate, specific needs and development period.

– Since the pipes do not need to be laid and collected in underground drip irrigation systems, labor costs are reduced.

– 100% homogeneous irrigation is no longer a dream.

What are the Drip Irrigation System Equipments?

The basic parts of the irrigation system are described as follows:

  •  Control unit: water and fertilizer strainers (coarse strainer, sand gravel filter, sieve strainer), pressure gauges, valve and fertilization tank are located in this section.
  • Main pipeline: The pipeline passing through the control unit transmits the water to the side main pipelines. The main pipe can be drip irrigation system materials and materials, pvc, polyethylene, galvanized steel, asbestos pipes.
  • The lateral main pipeline takes the water from the main pipe and passes it to the laterals. Sometimes, polyethylene pipe can be used in the part that goes above the soil surface. PVC or galvanized material is preferred for flooring going underground.
  • Laterals, the pipeline to which the drippers are connected is called lateral. The laterals, which mostly go from the soil surface, are connected to the drippers made of plastic. Lateral is mounted on pipes with a diameter of 12 to 32 cm.

The installation of the drip irrigation system begins by examining the location of the land, soil properties and water capacity. According to this review, the installation and system features are determined. For example, the underground drip irrigation system cannot be used in all areas. In shallow soils on rocky soils, the lateral depth becomes shorter and a system cannot be established for sub-soil irrigation. By means of water analysis, the lime and sulfur ratios of the water are determined. In the next step, experts; By looking at the slope of the land and the location of the water source, it calculates the required inlet and outlet pressures, the details of the drip irrigation system, the valve diameters, and the pressure to be used per plot.

The fact that the drip irrigation system consists of a lot of equipment brings with it some disadvantages. The installation cost of the drip irrigation system is the first disadvantage of the system, the system that requires a certain investment can cause our farmers to have difficulties at the first stage. In addition, in cases where expert support is insufficient and equipment is of poor quality, sufficient efficiency may not be obtained from drip irrigation. For this reason, it is very important to complete the process with professional support. When poor quality pipes are selected, the pipes can become clogged over time. In addition, although our farmers sometimes take sufficient care for the pipes, they may not be so meticulous about filtration. In this case, filter problems are frequent and repair costs can be a challenge. When the drip irrigation system is installed incorrectly and the plants experience water stress, the roots may expand towards the drippers and try to enter the dripper. This causes blockages. On sloping land, when the drip irrigation tank is at the highest point of the land, the water is directed only to the section with the least slope in its most pressurized state. Drippers in high places close to the water tank can drip less water. For this reason, it is necessary to consider all factors during laying and pressure adjustment, and to choose the right materials. Since the drippers under the ground cannot be seen with the naked eye, it is necessary to monitor a water leak or blockage. Monitoring of water meters gains great importance in order to prevent any loss and early intervention. When the right materials and careful workmanship are chosen, the disadvantages that may be experienced with drip irrigation are largely eliminated. In addition, it is recommended to perform maintenance at regular intervals to ensure the smooth operation and longevity of the system.

 How much water does the drip irrigation system consume in 1 hour?

Drippers drip water into the soil in the form of several liters over a few hours. The pressure of the water is controlled by the farmers and its speed is determined.

 How Much Does a Drip Irrigation System Cost?

The cost of the drip irrigation system varies according to the land characteristics. The durability of pipes that will be exposed to different weather conditions, especially under the ground for years, is of great importance. Although the selection of quality materials increases the cost in the first stage, it prevents the formation of replacement costs in the following years. Some users can integrate systems that automatically fill the tank when the water in the tank is low, by means of a submersible pump, into this technique during installation. These types of add-ons can cause general cost calculations to change. As the size of the land increases, the cost per decare decreases. It is stated that the drip irrigation system covers the installation cost of almost 4-5 years. When quality pipes are selected, the laid pipes can be used up to 15 years.

Imagine a new system in crop production without soil, waste, pesticides, and soilless agriculture is the answer to this dream. The soilless agriculture system, which is the answer to the question of whether a production that is more cost-effective, uses less chemicals, is made in a narrower area, and uses resources efficiently, can be applied vertically or horizontally. Soilless agriculture, which enables our farmers to have more control over production and saves time and effort, is seen as the agricultural model of the future. Soilless farming is practiced with different techniques.

How to do Soilless Agriculture? What are the Techniques?

Hydroponic, aquaponic and aeroponic farming techniques are the techniques of soilless farming. Vertical farming, which increases the productivity of the area unit, can also be applied together with these production methods, and it also creates a fertile alternative to agriculture made on the soil, as it promises continuous production throughout the year. Soilless farming techniques and details:

  • Aeroponic system: The air-based soilless farming system is called aeroponics. Based on the bare root system, the technique is based on the intermittent and continuous mist delivery of crop nutrients. Pumps connected to timers are used in the system. Nutrients are sprayed when the time comes from the water basin to meet the crop’s nutrients. The root system of the suspended crop meets with the water and nutrients sprayed by atomizing in a closed or semi-closed environment. While the oxygen in the air supports the growth of the crop, it is much easier for the exposed root to reach the oxygen. Upright models can also be designed in new forms of the air-based system, which is usually horizontal. The costs of aeroponic systems, which are divided into three as low, high and altrasonic pressure, also vary according to the type. Low pressure hydroponic farming costs are the lowest alternative, and the easy-to-install model over the ready-made system indicates the most widely used variety. Crop roots are positioned above the nutrient solution tank or suspended in a channel connected to the reservoir. The high pressure aeroponic system is being prepared with more advanced and special equipment. Therefore, higher cost is required. Thanks to the pressure that atomizes the water into its tiny droplets, the root benefits from more oxygen. In ultrasonic pressurized commercial systems, the hardware includes biological systems. Ultrasonic foggers mimic the ideal artificial humidity in the air. The mist, which carries very light particles, easily reaches the root area. This species is preferred for high value crops.
  • Aquaponic system: Defined as a fish plant integrated farming system, the system combines soilless agriculture with aquatic life. Thus, the pollution load of the water is reduced. The water used in fish farming feeds the crops with its rich nutritional value. The water comes to the tank where the crops are grown through pipes. The aquaponic system, which uses the nitrogen cycle to operate in a balanced and efficient manner, consists of two main parts. Aquaculture and hydroponic part… The part of aquaculture is called the part where fish live, feed and produce waste. The type of fish used in the system determines the nutritional value of the fertilizer for the crops. Fish living in different sized reservoirs and ponds are specially selected. The hydroponic part, on the other hand, names the part where germinated fruits and vegetables are grown. Crop roots are wrapped with non-pH materials such as peat, gravel, ash, rock wool, hydroton. Some producers may leave some or all of the root open. In the hydroponic system, light is needed for the growth of crops, besides daylight, white light sources used for the aquaculture part can also be used.
  • Hydroponic System: The hydroponic system, which was the first to be discovered in soilless farming techniques, is based on water. Crops that stand in nutrient solution sometimes grow in solid media. The hydroponic model is divided into two as open and closed systems: liquid and aggregate. In the liquid system, there is no solid medium that supports the crop roots, while the aggregate contains a solid medium. In the liquid system, a thin layer of nutrient solution is circulated along the roots, only a few millimeters deep. In the aggregate model, plants are planted on substrates filled in containers such as bags, flower pots, and viols. In ambient culture; materials such as peat, bark, sawdust can be used. The nutrient solution is transferred to the environments by drip irrigation or sprinkler irrigation.

Plants Suitable for Soilless Agriculture

Plants suitable for soilless agriculture can be grown in different systems.

  • Aeroponic system; lettuce, cabbage, mint, basil, thyme, rosemary, spinach, chives, ginger, dill, nettle, sage, parsley, broccoli, cauliflower, carrots, cucumbers, peppers, radishes, beets, tomatoes, eggplant, strawberries, peas, and preferred for potatoes.
  • In the aquaponic system, trout, carp and sea bream are mostly used in our country. Lettuce, tomatoes, cucumbers, zucchini, cabbage, spinach, strawberries, watercress, basil, coriander, parsley, garlic, mint, dill, arugula, chard, beans and peas are counted among the plants most suitable for the aquaponic system.
  • When it comes to hydroponic systems, plants suitable for hydroponic farming include lettuce, mint, spinach, chives, cucumbers, tomatoes, strawberries, dill, thyme, rosemary, anise, bell pepper, watercress, beans, watermelon and melon.

Hydroponic Farming Installation and Maintenance Cost

Considering the costs of soilless agriculture, many different factors come into play, from the skeleton of the greenhouse to be built to its nylon, from the price of soilless agricultural seedlings to fertilizer, from the technique of the system to the width of the greenhouse. The greenhouse construction selection is made according to the wind resistance, rain, snow and plant load of the greenhouse. In addition to the skeleton cost, the greenhouse installation cost is one of the items. The soilless farming technique to be used plays a decisive role in the price. For example, installing a low pressure aeroponic system is much more affordable than an ultrasonic system. It is necessary to determine the most suitable system for the budget, which will bring the highest yield to the plant to be grown, in consultation with experts. Each technique has different advantages and disadvantages. Exchange rates also cause changes in the fees for requirements, most of which are imported from abroad. You can get information from companies that produce soilless agricultural materials and install greenhouses for current prices and the most suitable system for you.

Hydroponic Farming Installation and Maintenance Cost

Considering the costs of soilless agriculture, many different factors come into play, from the skeleton of the greenhouse to be built to its nylon, from the price of soilless agricultural seedlings to fertilizer, from the technique of the system to the width of the greenhouse. The greenhouse construction selection is made according to the wind resistance, rain, snow and plant load of the greenhouse. In addition to the skeleton cost, the greenhouse installation cost is one of the items. The soilless farming technique to be used plays a decisive role in the price. For example, installing a low pressure aeroponic system is much more affordable than an ultrasonic system. It is necessary to determine the most suitable system for the budget, which will bring the highest yield to the plant to be grown, in consultation with experts. Each technique has different advantages and disadvantages. Exchange rates also cause changes in the fees for requirements, most of which are imported from abroad. You can get information from companies that produce soilless agricultural materials and install greenhouses for current prices and the most suitable system for you.

Soilless Agricultural Fertilizer

When farming without soil, the development of the crop is tied to the food it receives. For this reason, the use of the right solution and fertilizer is of great importance. Thanks to the cation exchange capacity of the clay minerals in the soil, nutrients can be retained, whereas the cation exchange capacity is low in the soilless environment. Unlike soil agriculture, microelement fertilization is also required in soilless agriculture. Since the roots are directly fed with the elements, it is essential to use quality fertilizers in soilless agriculture. The response rate of the crops against fertilizers that come into direct contact with the root seems to be quite high. Crops basically need the following elements in soilless agriculture; carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, sulfur, chlorine, copper, iron, manganese, molybdenum, zinc and boron. Since carbon, hydrogen and oxygen are provided from carbon dioxide and water, these elements are not taken into account when preparing the nutrient solution in soilless agriculture. However, other elements are given to the roots to support the development of the crop. While preparing the nutrient solutions, it should not be forgotten to adjust the pH and Ec values.

Soilless agriculture state support is also among the most frequently asked questions. Soilless farmers can benefit from different government incentives within the scope of rural development supports. The grant for the construction of facilities that generate electricity from renewable energy sources to be used in modern greenhouses of more than three decares, registered in the greenhouse registration system, built in certain provinces is the first support available. Those who undertake to invest at least 10 million in technological and geothermal greenhouse investments and to provide employment to at least 10 people for a period of ten years can be granted permission to use immovables belonging to the treasury by the Ministry of Finance. State Aids Within the framework of BKK; greenhouse investments; For regional incentives, advantages such as VAT exemption, income tax exemption, tax reduction, employer’s insurance premium support and interest support are offered to our farmers.

The roots, leaves and stems of plants go through their life cycles by growing. The journey from seed to a developed plant is defined as the increase in the volume of plants. When explaining growth, the irreversible nature of this process is the distinguishing feature. In other words, the growth stages of plants point to a largely irreversible and forward-running process.

Two events are the most important factors in plant growth. Cell and tissue production by meristems, that is, dividing tissues, is the first event, and cell growth and expansion is the second event. Plants reproduce by division, thanks to dividing tissues, and there is no limit to division. The division processes, which almost everyone will remember from basic biology knowledge, take place through the dividing tissues at the stem and root tips of all plants. Plants can grow longitudinally and laterally with these processes, and their volume also increases. Water is taken into the cells, the cell wall expands, and the cells expand with protein synthesis. When cells reach a certain size, they multiply by dividing the cell surface vertically or horizontally. Organs are formed at the end of the division, development, elongation and differentiation processes of cells. The growths in organs appear as roots, stems, leaves, flowers, fruits and seeds.

The growth stages of plants are embodied by root growth, stem growth, leaf growth. Plant growth stages are expressed in two types.

How Do Plants Growth Stages Happen?

  • Primary Growth: The growth of plants depends on the location of meristems, that is, the divisible tissues. Apical fissile tissues in root tips and stem buds help the plant grow longitudinally. This growth stage is called primary growth. The spread of the roots in the soil and the elongation of the shoots are the result of this process. Only primary growth occurs in herbaceous plants.
  •  Secondary growth: This growth stage seen in woody plants is defined as the thickening of the roots and shoots formed after the primary growth stage. In the growth type, which is the product of lateral dividing tissues, that is, meristems, growth occurs in the cells extending along the root and stem. Thus, the epidermis layer is replaced by the crust, which is a thick and hard cover. The second lateral tissue forms new layers to the vascular tissues. Wood is defined as xylem formed as a result of secondary growth type accumulated over the years.

Woody plants experience primary and secondary growth simultaneously. The plant develops with the growth types that occur in different regions. Primary growth occurs on young parts, stems and tips. In the older parts of the roots and stems, which are at a certain distance from the tip, the plant diameter increases as a result of secondary growth.

Among the external factors that enable the growth and development of plants are light, temperature, water and gravity. Internal factors are explained as growth hormones, organ builders and wound hormones. With the help of internal and external factors affecting growth and development, plants progress in their own life cycle and create new individuals suitable for their own kind.

 Types of Growth in Plants

  • Growth in the roots: After the seed germination, the root structure begins to form with many divisions. In soil, growth continues by taking water and nutrients from capillary spaces. Roots move through the soil, root hairs work to increase mineral and water absorption. The root structure, which grows from the region between the root hairs and the root caps, is constantly developing with the elongation and maturation stages.
  • Growth in the trunk: With the division of the trunk, the trunk axis is formed. The stem end is elongated by pushing up. The stem growth, which is a more complex process than the root, proceeds with the secondary growth process in perennial plants.
  • Leaf growth: The leaves, which provide plant development by photosynthesis, emerge from the shoots formed in the parts close to the growth zone of the stem.

Classification of Plants in Terms of Lifespan

The lifespan of plants defines “how old” they are. There are annual, biennial and perennial plants. The entire life cycle of annual plants is completed in one year. After flowering, after setting seeds, the plant dies. This period may take a few months or a few weeks. Rice cultivation is done annually, so rice is shown as an example of annual plants. Biennials remain in the vegetative phase in the first year. In the second year, flowering, fruit and seed yield are experienced. Then the plants die. The radish plant sets an example for biennial plants. Perennial plants are defined as woody. Trees are in this class. Trees consisting of shrubs with more than one branch are shown among perennial plants.

The growth phases of plants constitute the processes in which organs and tissues develop together. As a higher plant grows, two phases occur, namely the vegetative and reproductive phases. Vegetative excess seeds germinate, the process continues until flowering. Roots, stem and leaves complete this excess. The duration of this phase varies depending on how old the plants are. The reproductive phase, on the other hand, starts with flowering and marks the process in which it is productive. The duration of this process also varies depending on how old the plant is.

Hormones Effective in Growth Stages of Plants

Hormones that play a role in the growth stages of plants are called growth regulators. The growth promoting hormones are listed as follows:

  •  Auxins are found in the embryo, young leaves, fissile tissue of the terminal buds. It has functions such as accelerating cell division, stimulating elongation, controlling orientation movements, ensuring differentiation, and supporting root formation. The effects of auxins on fruit and flower formation, seedless fruit formation, and delaying fruit and leaf fall are also mentioned.
  • Cytokinins are synthesized in root tip, growing seed, fruit, young leaves. Hormones that promote mitosis prevent tip growth on the stem and support flowering on the side branches. It helps in the formation of tubers and buds. It plays an active role in the development of the leaf surface. It stimulates chlorophyll synthesis and chloroplast formation.
  • Gibberellins provide elongation. It is present in the stem, root fissile tissue, young leaves and embryos. Hormones that stimulate flowering, accelerate fruit formation, and play an important role in the formation of seedless fruit and the emergence of plants from the stagnation phase appear during growth.
  • Abscisic acid is found in stems, leaves and green fruits. Known as growth inhibiting hormone, the hormone slows down germination. It increases leaf death and shedding. It increases flowering and accelerates fruit ripening.
  • Ethylene makes a difference as the only gaseous hormone. It is found in the tips of plants, bud segments, flowers and maturing fruits. It slows down the growth at the root and stem end, increases fruit ripening. It stimulates germination, flowering, flower, leaf and fruit drop.

With the effect of all these substances, the life cycles of plants are completed, the growth stages are realized and the plant organs advance and end their life processes.

Seed breeding means crossbreeding studies that ensure high quality crops and high yields. The history of plant breeding is believed to be as old as agriculture. The history of the first seed breeding procedures, which are registered in Turkey and based on up-to-date scientific techniques, dates back to 1925. The first studies carried out at the Eskişehir seed breeding station were on wheat. Agricultural improvement in Turkey, which is almost a century old, is the address of great changes in terms of technique, organization and diversity. Seed breeding studies of many different crops from tomato to cucumber yield successful results.

Experts underline that breeding should not be confused with genetic studies. It is stated that the hybrid seed is a natural seed. Experts emphasize that seeds with superior characteristics are produced in this way, explaining that hybrid seeds offer many advantages. The first point that draws attention is that hybrid seeds are identified by their parents and crossed by experts. Although seed breeding within the framework of certain standards is perceived as the same as GMO, it is emphasized that the improved seeds should not be equated with genetically modified organisms. As a matter of fact, seed breeding studies take years and the purification and hybridization stages of the emerging hybrid seed (F1) are carried out meticulously. Improved seeds, which are prepared with the aim of providing healthier, more efficient and high quality products, allow to obtain products of a single color, type, taste and aroma from each seed. The standard quality of the product to be purchased from the seed provides an advantage to both our farmers and the consumer.

Does Seed Breeding Mean?

Scientific studies in which the genetics of plants are changed in line with the needs of human beings are called seed breeding. The term, which is also used as plant breeding, is realized through the use of methods of introduction, selection and hybridization. During the studies, help is taken from natural or artificial polyploidy and mutations.

The main objectives of seed breeding are listed as follows:

  •  To prepare products suitable for current climate and soil conditions.
  • To increase the resistance of crops against diseases and pests.
  • To produce high quality and productive varieties. To contribute to agricultural development.
  • To produce crops in different colors, sizes, shapes, flavors, aromas and seeds that will attract the attention of consumers in the market and to create a demand for it.
  • To prepare varieties that are highly responsive to cultivation techniques. To ensure efficient use of external factors such as water and fertilizer.

Hybrid, that is, improved seeds; Earliness becomes more resistant to diseases and pests. Breeding seeds with greater adaptability offer relatively higher yields even under unfavorable conditions.

Seed breeding studies are based on research on the reproductive systems of plants. According to the work titled Agricultural History and Deontology, pure line selection and progeny control, which started in the 1800s, is considered a milestone in this process. Then, the history of seed breeding progresses with the definition of dominance and recessiveness in peas, the diversification of oats, the production of the first hybrid corn and wheat. When the calendars show 1844, a new page opens in seed breeding with the understanding that cells arise from the division of other cells. After 1850, artificial pollination, interspecies crossing in the 1930s, cell fusion after 1975 and DNA technologies after 1985, seed breeding is carried out.

Seed breeding means obtaining hydride seeds. The father plant is planted an average of 10 days before the mother plant, thus preventing natural pollination in the external environment. Naturally pollination is prevented by cutting off the relationship of creatures such as bees and insects with the breeding environment. Opened flowers on the plant are cut and cleaned, unopened flowers are used in hybridization. The petals are taken by hand or with forceps and emasculation is performed. With this method, also called castration, the male organs are separated without harming the female organs. The possibility of the flower holding seeds is kept hidden in this way. A few days after castration, pollen taken from the paternal lines is rubbed on the female organ with the help of the hand. Adhesion is provided. After the process, the fruit seeds that come out of the flower become a hybrid seed, that is, a seed breeding product.

According to the Turkish Seed Association, the steps of the plant breeding process are listed as follows:

  • Parental selection (Wild species, closely related species, local and commercial varieties are seen as sources of variation.)
  • Crossbreeding (The degree of kinship, the type of hybrid and the way of hybridization are determined, the process is carried out.)
  • Selection (Genetic purification, morphological, disease and quality observations are carried out for the selection of desired traits)
  • Tests (Reaction to yield, disease, quality, environment and conditions are determined. Test times take years.)
  • Registration (Seed registration is carried out through patents.)
  • Elite seed production
  • Original seed production

 Where Are Seed Breeding Studies Conducted?

In our country, seed breeding activities are carried out through seed breeding stations established by the state or opened with private sector investment. Universities, research institutes and private companies can do plant breeding in Turkey. In addition to companies that breed seeds from abroad and imported seeds, there are many companies that work on hybrid seeds with domestic capital and domestic seeds. The list of all companies can be accessed from the website of the Sub-Association of Seed Industrialists and Producers.

Seed breeding is seen as the way to improve the agricultural sector. The use of advanced technology such as tissue culture, genetic modification, clearfield, CIS-genesis, MAS and seed coating in plant breeding brings a new era. With new technologies, high yields, better response to plant nutrients, short and robust stems, early maturation and resistance to diseases can be achieved. According to the data of the Turkish Seed Association, it is known that as a result of seed improvement studies, the sugar rate in sugar beet has been increased from 9% to 20%, and the oil rate in sunflower has been increased from 30% to 50%. After studies on corn, rice, wheat, barley, oats, soy, potatoes, sugar beets, we come across much more productive versions than primitive populations.

What Does Seed Breeding Do?

Seed improvement processes carried out by human hands; It is done in order to increase the efficiency that decreases as a result of external factors such as climate change and diseases. The work, completed through state and private agricultural breeding stations, aims to make agriculture more productive with new seeds emerging.

What are the benefits of seed breeding?

Without cultivated plants, it is not possible for human beings to survive. Natural vegetation offers the capacity to feed only 5% of the world’s population. The need for cultivated plants is met through breeding and modern agriculture initiatives. Seed breeding allows for increased crop production. Thanks to the increase in product quality, harvest amount and yield, crops suitable for high demand can be supplied. In addition, seed improvement is considered necessary against pests caused by the changing climate and the differentiation of soil structure. Providing seeds that are compatible with current geographical and climatic conditions becomes possible only through breeding.

Regenerative agriculture, one of the newest trends in agriculture in the world, is based on improving the conditions of cultivated lands, according to the news of the Ministry of Commerce. Regenerative farming, which is complemented by restorative practices, is also called regen for short. Practices known as “restorative agriculture” in our language make the soil more productive. Soil health is improved and the microbiological structure is idealized again with environmental awareness studies. Regen farming apps cover many processes, from tillage to pesticides, to crops planted, to grazing animals. Studies that enable sustainable food production are supported by different states in the world to mitigate the climate crisis.

It is quite wrong to think that regenerative agriculture is a fashion. On the contrary, the rate of arable land in the world is rapidly decreasing day by day. Regenerative practices are challenging industrial agriculture, which degrades the soil. It is also hoped that it will be a part of the solution to the problems experienced as a result of global warming and depletion of water resources. The form of agriculture, which aims to reactivate the self-renewal and repair function of the soil, constitutes one of the important pillars of the dream of a future where the food is more nutritious, the soils more fertile, the climate more “normal” and the environment cleaner.

Although it is thought to be synonymous with organic agriculture and sustainable agriculture, regenerative agriculture is a subheading of these two forms of agriculture and brings a new perspective to agriculture with a broader perspective.

How is Regenerative Agriculture Made?

According to the article Regenerative Agriculture: Solid Principles, Extraordinary Claims published by Washington State University: Regenerative agriculture is often confused with sustainable or organic agriculture, but it is not the same thing. Regenerative agriculture is not only concerned with the crop, the way of production, the medicine used, but rather aims to heal it by focusing on the soil. It includes the goals of improving animal health, human health, community health, soil and crops. It is aimed to farm with the least possible organic degradation.

Elimination of erosion is also listed among the objectives for the restorative works that put conservation agriculture at the center. In line with this goal, plants that live in the soil for as long as possible are grown and the soil is not cultivated. The top layer of the soil is protected like an armor and strengthening is provided. For this reason, it becomes impossible to use regenerative applications, especially in root crop cultivation and small seed crop production. Because for the cultivation of root crops such as potatoes, carrots, celery or beets and small-seeded plants, the soil must be cultivated, and the crops must be taken from the ground at harvest. This means that the soil is turned upside down in a sense and does not comply with the principles of restorative agriculture.

In addition, restrictions are imposed on the use of pesticides and fertilizers in regenerative agriculture, instead using live fertilizers obtained from crop residues. Supports with organic components such as humic acid are preferred to strengthen the soil. Soil is cultivated with the principle of increasing biodiversity. Planting the crops by rotation, producing in season, reducing greenhouse production are among other restorative practices. When it comes to regenerative agriculture, livestock is also a link in the chain. The natural cycle, which works to feed the animals grazed with annual forage crops to the crops through manure, is among the restorative practices.

Rejeneratif Tarım Nasıl Yapılır?

The following principles are used to make regenerative agriculture:

  1. Increasing biodiversity
  2. Enrichment of the soil with natural supports
  3. Improvement of water quality
  4. Integration of livestock activities (restorative grazing)
  5. Restriction of chemical use
  6. No cultivation of the soil
  7. Allowing plant rooting

If you want more specific examples of what regenerative applications can be, how regenerative agriculture is done, our suggestions are as follows:

  • You may prefer holistic managed grazing.
  • You can strengthen the soil by planting perennial plants.
  • You can support the differentiation of the soil content by sowing with rotation.
  • You can choose to use organic fertilizers and compost.
  • You can help restore soil with no-till farming and pasture cropping.
  • You can integrate your livestock-agriculture activities with organic farm manure and regenerative grazing.
  • You can plant trees by performing agro-forestry activities.
  • You can plant cover crops to suppress weeds and increase carbon sequestration.
  • You can find solutions by taking advantage of natural biological enemies in the fight against pests.

When agroforestry is done, applications are supported by studies such as silvopastur. The holistic application, whose Turkish is pechenkoru, includes the opening of agro-forestry areas for animal grazing. The system, created with perennial edible plants, intertwines grazing and agricultural activities. According to written academic publications, herbs such as comfrey (Symphytum x uplandicum), dandelion (Taraxacum officinale), Lamb’s ear (Rumex acetosa), and Chamomile (Chamaemelum nobile) can be planted in these areas to improve the soil. However, it is important not to plant the grasses too close to the trees so that they do not harm the tree nutrition. It is important that the people who will apply the pechenkoru do not bring animals into the agricultural forest areas for 5-6 years in order not to damage the seedlings. Small animals such as guinea fowl that do not harm the saplings can be fed in the field after the 2nd year. In regenerative grazing practices, the number of animals must be high, so that inedible areas are stepped on and mulch is provided. Since the fertilization will be more, the yield increases faster. Short-term grazing is done in daily cycles.

What are the Benefits of Regenerative Agriculture?

  • According to the Huffington Post’s Nature Wants Her Carbon Back by Larry Kopald, regenerative agriculture is predicted to reduce CO2 carbon emissions. Studies show that in a period of 3 years, with the widespread use of regenerative farming practices, more than 100% of the carbon emissions caused by industrial agriculture can be reabsorbed.
  • It is stated that the nutritional value of the crops can be much higher with restorative applications.
  • It is expected to prevent erosion and reduce soil losses.
  • Social benefits are also listed among the advantages of regenerative agriculture. Regulation of farmer’s rights, working conditions and incentives is shaped within the framework of regenerative agriculture supports in the world.
  • As the contact of people working in agriculture with chemicals decreases, the risks taken in terms of health are decreasing.
  •  It is aimed to protect and effectively use natural resources.Regenerative agriculture is seen as costly for our country and our farmers today. At first glance, it may be thought that it is not applicable in the near term, as it requires both the regulation of agricultural lands, a change in the use of fertilizers and pesticides, and integration with animal husbandry. As policies regarding regenerative agriculture are developed, as the world becomes acquainted with its benefits, as brands diversify their products with alternatives suitable for regenerative agriculture, it is expected that regenerative agriculture will become more widespread and costs will decrease.You can follow the most up-to-date agricultural information on Tarfin Blog, and you can order agricultural products of the best brands at the most affordable prices on Tarfin Mobil.What are the differences of regenerative agriculture?

    When it comes to organic or sustainable agriculture, the main difference is that the emphasis is on the soil in restorative agriculture, although there is no principle of tillage. In addition, there are application suggestions that include animal husbandry in regenerative agriculture. Organic farming can include a large number of environmentally harmful non-food inputs. Many farms that grow organic food are able to make non-regenerative choices in their livestock. Regenerative practices offer suggestions not found in organic farming, such as animals grazing in agro-forests. In sustainable agriculture, planting annual plants or popular farm crops is routine, whereas in regenerative agriculture, the soil needs to be rooted with perennial plants. Many organic farming principles are used in regenerative farming, but regenerative farming also goes beyond sustainable or organic farming, promising a more comprehensive view. Regenerative agriculture includes the achievement of fair working conditions for farmers and the development of agricultural policies for the welfare of the society.

Germination, which is the first stage for the growth of crops, is generally done in open fields and fields in our country. On a limited basis, germination processes can be carried out in greenhouses. Seedling placement and plant germination operations on arable soil can result in inefficiency when suitable conditions are not available. Especially in the face of sudden adverse weather conditions such as frost, plants with low resistance are easily affected.

Many important stages such as yield, yield, crop quality and adequate seed production are primarily focused on plant germination and cultivation. The negativities experienced during the germination stage cause a significant break in agricultural production. Therefore, it is necessary to use technology for seed germination and seedling growth. At this point, we come across germination room models.

In the world’s leading agricultural countries such as Israel, the Netherlands and Belgium, seedling cultivation is usually done with a plant germination room. The germination chambers, which have already taken an important place in aquaculture, reveal a functional result of the search for innovation in agriculture.

What Does Germination Room Mean?

The germination room is called an isolated room idealized according to the characteristics required for the germination of the crops. Different thermodynamic variables from humidity to temperature level, light to carbon dioxide ratio are carefully determined in the germination chambers, which are prepared by utilizing the achievements of technology. In addition, regular control is provided with temperature sensors, humidity sensors and C02 sensors placed in the rooms.

The rooms where all kinds of plants can be grown are used both for production and for experimentation, testing and research. Different volumes can be produced in rooms where atmospheric conditions are created artificially. As an alternative to the rooms in which industrial cooling systems are used, germination cabinets designed with similar systems can also be used.

 Germination Room Features

The standard dimensions of the germination chambers cannot be mentioned. Optionally, insulation is provided by using special fillings in the germination rooms designed in desired dimensions. So much so that at least 80 mm polyurethane filled panels are placed. The rooms, which are made of a special shelving system and hidden steel construction, are designed according to customer demand, based on the desired shelf height, width and number. The standards of germination rooms are listed as follows:

  • Cold rooms designed for the germination of crops need to be at 0 degrees.
  • It is considered essential that the relative humidity in the germination chamber reaches 100%.
  • The temperature is kept at 5 degrees in the seedling growing foci where the plants are grown.
  • The relative humidity in the nursery growing rooms is close to 100%.
  • It is recommended to keep the temperature at 7 degrees in marketing cold rooms where grown seedlings are stocked and preserved.
  • In the cold rooms where the grown seedlings are kept, the relative humidity is fixed at close to 100%.
  • For convenience, the refrigerant evaporation temperature is accepted as -2 in both the germination, growing and storage rooms, and in the cooling units.
  • A nominal light value of 6000 lux is provided in the germination chamber. Optionally, this value can be increased up to 20000 lux. However, it is important that the system does not create vibrations and does not create stress on the plant.

What Should Be in the Germination Room?

Adequate equipment of the germination room is considered essential for a successful germination process. First of all, precision cooling devices are needed for the germination process. Then, full insulation is provided by using high quality cold room polyurethane panels and cold room doors. In addition, high pressure humidification feature and high pressure line spreading all around the room are sought. Of course, it should also have a heating feature for the winter period. It is necessary to have a single control panel for the germination room equipment and to control the cooling, humidification and heating systems easily and quickly. It is also important to ensure homogeneous air distribution with special fans in the room. It is recommended to monitor the variables with the help of different sensors. In the germination chambers equipped with the latest technology, automatic optimization can be offered without the need for manual intervention when an undesirable value is encountered.

Optional features in the germination room include carbon dioxide control, automatic systems capable of seasonal simulation, central monitoring module, fan speed control mechanism, fan pressure switch and service valves. In rooms where nature is simulated, it is important to have 1 degree temperature sensitivity, 2 relative humidity sensitivity, changes in day/night lengths, daylight lighting, digital control panel, time program feature, daylight lighting, fault lights, pressure automatics, vibration receiver.

Why is the Germination Room Important?

With the development of cultural agriculture, more efficient and hybrid seed production is realized. However, optimum conditions for the seeds to realize the promised yield cannot be provided naturally. Plant germination and growing systems are born in response to this need. While devices designed to prevent plants from spoiling have been around for a long time, the late design of cold stores that help germination signals a huge deficit in agriculture. The germination rooms, which are the result of the meeting of technology and agriculture, seem to be an integral part of modern and sustainable agriculture.

The advantages of germination rooms are listed as follows:

  1. The germination chamber helps the seed to sprout in a short time.
  2. Since all variables can be controlled, the possibility of loss as a result of sudden changes in conditions is minimized.
  3. It saves both time and space.
  4. Thanks to the use of the germination room, the probability of getting the expected yield from the seeds increases.
  5. Thanks to the isolated rooms, you can start growing whatever crop you want, regardless of the season.
  6. Germination takes place faster and more evenly.

 How to Make a Germination Room?

The germination chamber used for seed germination provides ideal conditions for the best germination of the seed. Establishing the rooms that contain the necessary humidity, light and cooling systems requires serious engineering studies and air conditioning knowledge. The isolation of the room in such a way that it will not be affected by external conditions indicates the most important stage of the installation. Changing temperature and humidity during the day should not affect the room, it is important that the relative humidity remains constant. For this reason, thick profiles, insulation fillings and cold storage doors are used to minimize permeability. Similarly, shelf systems are produced from special materials suitable for cold storage. In the light of all the information, it seems almost impossible for people to set up a cold germination room on their own without technical support. Support can be obtained from professional air conditioning companies and industrial cooler brands for both material supply and installation of technical equipment.

For Which Seeds Is the Germination Chamber Used?

Germination chambers can be used both for sprouting flower seeds and for germinating crops. You can prepare flower seedlings and speed up their development by germinating barley and corn for animal feed in a short time. If you have enough space, you can start growing almost any plant with the help of germination rooms.

Global warming, environmental factors, rapid depletion of water resources make drought an important problem for future agricultural policies. However, experts express that there are methods to increase the drought tolerance of the soil and share some suggestions for our farmers.

3 Ways to Strengthen Soil Against Drought

The issue discussed at the 5th South Dakota Soil Health Conference held in the United States reveals that the problem should be dealt with meticulously. The suggestions of the experts who shared their views at the conference are listed as follows:

  1. Increasing water infiltration: The application, which is the first important step in combating drought, aims to increase water seepage into the soil. This step, which aims to prevent the flow of water in the soil and to increase the penetration of water into the soil, deals with the efficient use of water. Experts state that the more residues in the soil, the more infiltration will be. Living roots in the soil feed microorganisms while creating space for worms and insects to live. Insects make the soil pores more open and indented, paving the way for more water leaks.
  2. Slowing down the evaporation of water: Evaporation is one of the leading ways of water loss. To prevent water loss by evaporation, the easiest solution is to cut the wind speed. It seems possible to reduce evaporation by establishing wind shields and protecting the soil. Mulching also helps our farmers in this regard. With the mulch, moisture clings to the surface and can stay in the soil for a longer time without evaporation. In addition, weeds are said to reduce erosion and indirectly make the soil more resilient.
  3. Increasing root depth: The more organic matter in the soil, the more water the soil can hold. Experts agree that choosing perennial, deep-rooted crops can be beneficial to increase the soil’s drought resistance. You can make the soil richer by planting perennial crops with strong roots rather than annual crops.

A New Look at Farming Habits

According to Greenwich official sources, gaining agricultural habits to protect microbial life with intensive chemical treatments increases the drought resistance of the soil. It is recommended to use it to improve the structure of the soil instead of removing organic components such as leaves and grass residues from the soil. It is often overlooked that organic ingredients that retain moisture, regulate acidity, and increase water penetration benefit the soil. Experts recommend using mulchers instead of regular lawn mowers when mowing, especially in lawn gardens. It is emphasized that replacing the blades of lawnmowers with those of mulchers can help produce well-trimmed and thinned pieces of grass. It is stated that the pieces of grass covering the soil such as mulch will accelerate the activity of living things such as earthworms in the soil, and thus the water holding capacity of the soil may increase indirectly.

In the list of suggestions in the document, it is noted that vegetable wastes can be returned to the soil as nutrients by the compost method. By recycling garden and kitchen waste, you can reduce your garbage and enrich the soil. Even household compost machines are sufficient to meet the needs of many small farmers and home gardeners. Thanks to the organic components that help make the soil more porous, the soil is fed better and moisture loss is reduced. Research by the USDA shows that every 1% increase in soil organic matter retains up to 25,000 gallons of water.

The rising trend of regenerative agriculture in the world aims to strengthen the soil against drought. It is aimed to re-idealize the microbiological structure of the soil with practices also called restorative agriculture. Studies that enable sustainable food production reconsider every step of agricultural production. The soil is not cultivated, crops that live as long as possible are preferred, the superstructure of the soil is preserved and strengthened. Perennial and large-seeded crops are chosen instead of small-seeded and root crop cultivation. The biodiversity of the soil is increased with supports with organic components such as humic acid. Seasonal production, crop rotation, open field farming and animal husbandry are the main principles of these practices. A natural cycle is created by feeding the crops with forage crops planted and manure from grazing animals.

Smart Agriculture, The Easiest Way to Strengthen Soil

Experts warn that one of the most important factors in the infertility of the soil is the unconscious use of fertilizers, excess water and chemicals. Overuse leads to groundwater pollution and reduced crop yields. The ingredients used without analysis, relying on groping, do more harm than good to the soil and its crop. For this reason, it is necessary to analyze the soil during the planting process, determine the needs of the crop with leaf analysis and, accordingly, carry out agricultural exchanges.

Here, smart farming applications can also support the process. Agriculture 4.0 applications and 5G agriculture technologies show that smart agriculture is part of our future. It seems possible to protect the soil with smart practices against drought. The basis of these systems is to analyze the soil with the help of smart technologies, to provide the needs automatically, to control the external factors such as weather and soil moisture status by analysis, and to irrigate with the most efficient irrigation methods. In this way, the waste of resources is prevented and the richness of the soil is protected. Fertilizer applied as needed and water given as needed add life to the soil and crops.

You Can Take a Big Step Against Drought by Preserving the Water You Have

The way to make lands that become dry due to water pollution and global warming productive is to protect the water resources at hand. The following ways are suggested to our farmers for the efficient use of water resources:

  • Establishment of open water tanks that will enable the recycling of rain water
  • Experts underline that it is vital for our world to prefer methods such as drip irrigation that saves water against drought.
  • Rather than frequent watering, it is recommended to water less frequently, but deeply until it reaches the root.
  • Growing drought and heat-tolerant plants makes it easier to save water.
  • Crops need to be watered early in the morning. This reduces the possibility of evaporation in the water.
  • By using physical or vegetative barriers aligned along the slope, stopping the flow from the surface supports the efficient use of rainwater. Stone walls, wooden barriers and even waste piles allow for higher use of water in the land.
  • The fact that shade sources such as trees are located in the shade prevents evaporation from the heat, making it easier for rainwater to hold on to the land.
  • The use of planting pits increases the depth of cultivated soil, helping the use of organic resources. It both reduces the danger of evaporation and helps increase biodiversity.

Scientists around the world are warning the world that a waterless future is not far away. Since the dreams of agriculture on Mars are still far from reality, ways to protect the earth’s resources and protect the soil with the resources are being explored. However, results are also obtained. For example, humanity is discovering new ways to do soilless agriculture every day, and today many plants such as lettuce are grown without soil. You can do your best and protect our future by keeping your hope for science and the land.

Soilless agriculture or hydroponic farming is a form of agriculture practiced in stagnant water culture without soil. Instead of nutrients in the soil, plants benefit from a nutrient solution containing the minerals the plant needs. Therefore, instead of looking for minerals throughout the soil, plants can easily and directly take nutrients from the nutrient solution. Growing media such as sand, peat, vermiculite, perlite, coconut, rock wool or expanded clay aggregate are often used to support plants and their root systems and are likely to retain moisture around the roots. The growing medium itself is not a source of nutrients. In recent years, the importance of hydroponic agriculture in our country has been understood. The number of greenhouse areas created with this agricultural method is increasing gradually. In addition, hydroponic farming has been a frequently used method in space exploration in recent years. In particular, people who will live in permanent human colonies such as Mars and the Moon will grow vegetables and fruits with this agricultural method. Hydroponic agricultural method or the products grown with this method do not have any negative side effects on human health.

What are the Advantages of Hydroponic Agriculture Against Soil Agriculture?

Plants grown in hydroponic systems have optimum levels of nutrients and moisture. Therefore, they grow faster and healthier. The absence of soil means the absence of weeds and pests and diseases from the soil. Another advantage is that the root systems are smaller in hydroponically grown plants, which means that the plant concentrates its growth energy more on the growth of the plant than on the roots. Also, since the roots of hydroponic plants are never tangled, there is no need to change their pots. There is no need to fertilize or spray a hydroponic crop with pesticides. Crops grown with the hydroponic system have a longer shelf life than those grown in soil. Hydroponic cultivation is easy, environmentally friendly in terms of growing healthy plants.

It provides numerous benefits, including: Plants grow 50% faster than in soil because they have easier access to nutrients and water. It is possible to grow crops indoors without sunlight or with artificial lighting all year round. The nutrients are available to the plants directly and do not belong to the growing medium. Little or no pesticides are used. Plants begin to grow in a disease-free environment. Smaller pots can be used, the roots can grow without tangling. Cultivation is possible where horticulture is not possible, for example poor soils, rocky areas, even balconies. With the use of artificial light, it is possible to create a garden even in a room or garage that you do not use. Less labor is required than cultivation in the soil because there is no need to dig or weed. Greater control over extreme growing conditions facilitates the best possible environment for plants and results in better quality crops and agricultural returns. Fast growing healthy plants grown by hydroponic methods are more resistant to pests and diseases. You will also notice the improvement in flavor and appearance of fruits and vegetables grown hydroponically.

How to Install a Hydroponic System? What is Required?

First of all, you need to decide where you will install the system in the house. The place where you will install the system can be a garden, balcony, basement, terrace or a closed room. However, in all these places, you will need a different system and equipment. For example, in the system you will install on the terrace, you do not need artificial lighting according to the plant you will grow, but you may have to close it with glass to keep the temperature constant, as in greenhouses. However, when you put the system in a basement or a closed room without light, you can also grow crops with artificial lighting. It is important to decide how the system will be as well as where you will install the system. Generally, there are two types of hydroponic systems on the market. The first is tubular hydroponics (also known as fluid hydroponics), and the second is container hydroponics (also known as drip irrigation hydroponics). The tubular hydroponic system is much more convenient. You can feed more plants, but it costs a little more. For this reason, in this article, I will explain the installation of the container type hydroponic system, which is much simpler.

Before moving on to the installation of the container type hydroponic system, I would like to briefly talk about the working principle of this system. As it is known, plants live depending on the soil in their natural life. It continues with the development of the seed under the ground, sprouting and rising above the ground. Plants get all the nutrients, minerals and water they need from the soil. In the hydroponic system, a plant without soil takes the nutrients and minerals it needs from the water in solution. We can start by putting a certain amount of ready-made plant food in some water in a container. This water is transferred to the growing medium at the top of the pot with the plants by a water pump and a thin water hose. Thus, the plant will get all the nutrients it needs from this nutrient-dense water. However, there are a few important details in the system that should be considered. The pH of the water, its temperature, and the absence of light are very important.